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Full text of "A report to the Blyth-Zellerbach committee on modern management for San Francisco"

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A REPORT TO THE 
BLYTH-ZELLERBACH COMMITTEE 



ON 

MODERN MANAGEMENT 

FOR SAN FRANCISCO 




Summary 
Comparative Costs 

JUNE 1961 VOLUME 1 



SUMMARY 
COMPARATIVE COSTS STUDY 



Report of the Mayor's Committee 

for Municipal Management June 1961 



J) 

■*35i.t 






63 06 



SUMMARY 
June 1, 1961 

Memorandum for Carl F. Wente, Chairman, 
Mayor's Committee for Municipal Management. 

Our seven-month study of selected aspects of the San Francisco 
City and County Government is now complete, and a brief history of our 
activities might be helpful as background information. 

Through arrangements by the Blyth-Zellerbach Committee, ten cor- 
porations made sixteen executives available on a full-time loan basis. 
Eight experienced management consultants, some of whom were special- 
ists in municipal organization and administration, were employed to 
balance our task force group. The total costs, including salaries, 
borne by business and industry were in excess of $300,000. 

Quarters and furniture were provided by the City in the Civic 
Auditorium Building and Mayor George Christopher also made available, 
as needed, three key government officials to serve as liaison for, and 
consultants to, our group. 

The San Francisco Bureau of Governmental Research provided advice 
and technical assistance throughout the project and aided in adminis- 
trative matters relating to our operation. 

For convenience, our group was given the name of "Mayor's Commit- 
tee for Municipal Management, " and the manner in which it was organ- 
ized, its relations with its advisory committees, city government 
consultants and the San Francisco Bureau of Governmental Research, are 
depicted in the attached chart. 

We focused on seven major areas of city government: comparative 
cost, budget, the Chief Administrative Officer's organization, pur- 
chasing and related activities, wage and salary administration, police, 
and recreation and parks. 

Each of the areas studied was examined in varying degrees of de- 
tail by a separate task force, conducting extensive field investiga- 
tions using standard interview procedures and supplementing these with 
exhaustive research of comparable governmental and business organiza- 
tions, methods and procedures. Separate reports, ranging in size from 
30 to 150 pages, were then prepared on each field of study. 

You will recall the question originally put to us was whether the 
city's upward cost trend of approximately six per cent, compounded 
annually, could be arrested and, if so, could this be done without 
impairment of health, safety, or welfare? 

We are now prepared to answer this question. Our answer is that 
the upward cost trend of six per cent can be arrested - indeed may be 
reversed - and that this can be done without impairment of health, 
safety, and welfare. 



SUMMARY 

In support of these answers, we submit herewith our reports con- 
taining specific suggestions leading to aggregate annual savings in 
excess of $25,000,000 of which $6,000,000 could be achieved without 
charter change . 

Possible one-time savings approximating $1^,000,000 are also pre- 
sented. And, as a by-product of our study, we include recommendations 
to provide additional reven i? of over $6,000,000 per year. Thus, the 
total amount itemized in these reports comes to almost $1+6,000,000. 

It was not possible within the limits of time available to make 
a complete survey of the entire City-County government, including the 
School Department organization, involving some 21,000 people. Hence, 
the areas selected were in the nature of "pilot" studies, indicating 
what could be accomplished if the same work were to be carried on 
throughout the balance of the City-County organization. We believe 
that annual and one-time savings of equal magnitude could be developed 
by such studies. 

One further comment : our detailed studies were of sufficient 
breadth and detail to permit an appraisal of the efficiency and ade- 
quacy of the over-all organization of City-County government, and to 
permit an evaluation of the management machinery created by the 
charter in 1931- During those thirty years, San Francisco's popula- 
tion has increased 17$, from 63^,000 to 7*4-2,000; the number of City- 
County employees has increased 75$, from 12,000 to 21,000; and the 
annual budget has increased 350$, from $60,000,000 to $269,000,000. 
Municipal government has become an enterprise of major proportions. 

It was apparent early in our work that the basic plan of organi- 
zation for the City-County government is no longer adequate to cope 
efficiently and effectively with the government needs of 1961. Indeed, 
it is a tribute to the City-County personnel that so much is done with 
such an outmoded vehicle . 

The present archaic organization structure seriously impedes the 
job of management. It tends to create inefficiency and to increase 
costs, rather than to increase efficiency and to decrease costs. 
Serious consideration should be given to a complete overhaul and 
modernization of the governmental machinery. 

In conclusion, all of these suggestions are based upon proven 
management tools and techniques used in business and government today. 
Necessarily, political considerations did not enter into our formula- 
tion of recommendations, yet we recognize that our report, however 
objective it may be, cannot escape political debate and controversy. 
This we regret but cannot avoid. 

We would like to say that many helpful ideas and suggestions came 
from the organizations we surveyed. Many of our recommendations, where 
they are within the authority of the management concerned, have already 
been placed into effect or are now under active consideration. This is 
but evidence of the outstanding co-operation we received from all levels 
of government, and we were indeed grateful for this. 



SUMMARY 



We would be remiss if we failed to specifically acknowledge the 
role played by the Advisory Committees and by the San Francisco Bureau 
of Governmental Research. They gave freely of their time to advise 
and counsel with us and to give us the benefit of their experience. 
Naturally, the final responsibility for the contents of these reports 
and recommendations is ours. 



Marshall G. Mustain, 
Project Director. 



SUMMARY 



MAYOR'S COMMITTEE 
FOR MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT 

Carl F. Wente, Chairman 

Marshall G. Mustain, Project Director 



Louis Clisbee, Thomas S. Page, Mark W. Smith, 

(San Francisco Editor and Report Secretary 

Bureau of Govern- Coordinator 

mental Research) 
Liaison and Coordinator 



TASK FORCE ON COMPARATIVE COSTS, AND BUDGET 

Russell M. Ancell A. M. Chambliss A. P. O'Kane, 
Marion Ho Marks Thomas J. Davis, Jr. Chairman 



TASK FORCE ON CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE 
OFFICER'S ORGANIZATION 

William L. Davidson Robert C. Goelz Martin Steinbeck 

Thomas I. McCain Raymond L. Wallace 

K. D. Martin, 
Chairman 



TASK FORCE ON PURCHASING 

Joseph F. Base H. D. Holcomb, 

Chairman 



TASK FORCE ON WAGE AND SALARY 

Homer H. Starr Raymond A. Belinge C. J. Bocchieri, 

Chairman 



TASK FORCE ON POLICE 

A. M. Chambliss Thomas J. Davis, Jr. 

Chairman 



TASK FORCE ON RECREATION AND PARK DEPARTMENT 

S. G. Clark E. C. Tabler Robert E. Hoffman, 

J. F. Brandeburg Wm. J. Rafaelli Chairman 






U_ Q_ Z 

o — ^ 




SUMMARY 



SUMMARY 

The highlights of the results of our study, giving the 
broad picture apart from any multitude of accompanying de- 
tail, are presented herewith. 



SUMMARY 



COMPARATIVE COST 



San Francisco's levels of expenditure for municipal government 
are among the highest in the state and in the nation, and are rising 
more steeply than the average. 

In terms of total expenditure per capita, San Francisco's figure 
of $218 is higher than any of the other six comparable major American 
cities, 45$ above their average of $150. Had our expenditures been at 
the average level, our budget would have been lowered by some 
$50,000,000 . 

In terms of property taxes per capita, San Francisco's figure of 
$104 was exceeded only by Boston and was 79$ above the average for 
comparable cities. In terms of total taxes (including property taxes) 
San Francisco's figure of $129 a person was again second only to 
Boston and 45$ higher than the six-city average of $89. 

Even more significant is the fact that the rate of increase in 
taxes was so high in San Francisco. San Francisco's total taxes per 
capita increased 100$ in the ten-year period from 1949 to 1959> in- 
creasing 52$ more than the average for the six major comparable 
American cities, and 57$ more than the average for the five comparable 
California cities. In that same period of time, San Francisco's prop- 
erty taxes increased per capita 88$, which was 91$ more than the aver- 
age for the non-California cities and 160$ more than the average for 
California cities. 

Regional differences in cost of living are not a significant fac- 
tor in the high cost levels of San Francisco as compared with mid- 
Western and Eastern cities. In fact, San Francisco's per capita ex- 
penditures are higher than those of five other comparable California 
cities, 16$ above their average. 

These increases become particularly striking when contrasted with 
the Consumer Price Index, which increased only 30$ i n San Francisco, 
as compared with the 100$ increase in our taxes per capita during the 
same period. 

In making these comparisons, we could not make value judgments as 
to the relative efficiency or quality and quantity of service provided 
by the comparable municipal governments. We had to draw our conclu- 
sions on the basis of statistical materials furnished by the Census 
Bureau, the cities themselves, and many other agencies. 



SUMMARY 



RECOMMENDATIONS WHICH DO NOT 
INVOLVE CHARTER CHANGE 

Annual savings in excess of $6,000,000 can be achieved 
without charter change. These savings fall mainly in the 
area of the Police Department, the Chief Administrative 
Officer, and the Recreation and Park Department. 



SUMMARY 



THE POLICE DEPARTMENT 



The cost per capita for police protection has doubled from 19^-9 
to 1959> and the approach taken was to see what measures, if any, 
would help provide more effective police protection per dollar spent. 

Potential savings could run as high as $500,000 annually and 
would not involve charter changes. These savings fall into three 
categories: 

1. Methods 

A modern system of dictating equipment and a civilian steno- 
graphic pool, used in other leading cities, should be sub- 
stituted for the current archaic practice whereby patrolmen, 
detectives, and others personally type their own reports. 
Telephoning reports directly to dictating machines for ulti- 
mate transcription in a stenographic pool at the Hall of 
Justice would result in a potential saving in working time 
equal to the full time of 37 officers. If the Department 
payroll were to be reduced by 37 officers and the requisite 
number of substitute typists engaged, the saving would ap- 
proximate $230,000 a year. 

2. Personnel 

Substituting civilian personnel for police officers, in num- 
bers sufficient to bring San Francisco's percentage of 
civilians to a level approaching that of other major West 
Coast police forces, would result in additional savings of 
approximately $250,000 a year. 

3- Organization 

Reduction in the number of district stations would produce 
potential savings of $100,000 annually per station and a 
study in detail should be made of this problem. Considerable 
evidence now available indicates that a reduction from nine 
to four stations would be feasible. 

All of these recommendations could be placed in effect without 
decreasing the amount of police protection now afforded San Francisco. 
In fact, by freeing police officers from typing and other clerical 
duties, the amount of time available for police work would increase. 



SUMMARY 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 



A survey of 2k organization units which function under the Chief 
Administrative Officer and a review of their methods and procedures 
resulted in certain recommendations which would produce annual savings 
ranging upward from $5,000,000 a year, without charter change. 

The office of the Chief Administrative Officer was established to 
assist the Mayor in the administration and management of the City and 
County of San Francisco and has proven to be of great value. Today 
this office supervises more than 5>000, about 25$ of the total employ- 
ees of the city government. Since its inception, employment super- 
vised by the Chief Administrative Officer has increased 83$ while 
annual budgeted expenditures over the same period have increased 313$> 
to more than $37 million for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1961. To 
cope with the increasing magnitude of responsibilities, both now and 
in the future, the report includes a recommended reorganization of 
this group, providing a more balanced and functional organization 
within the current limitations of the Charter. 

The measurable annual savings, calculated in a conservative man- 
ner, that can be realized from the recommendations in this report 
amount to over $5,500,000. The major items of savings include the 
following : 

1. The shifting of tubercular and geriatric patients among San 
Francisco General Hospital, Laguna Honda Home and Hassler 
Health Home coupled with segregating the General Hospital 
wards into "acute" and "geriatric" would effect an annual 
saving of about $2,000,000. 

2. A major substitution of mechanical street cleaning equipment 
for manual labor, coupled with control of vehicle street 
parking and around-the-clock work scheduling, would result 
in an annual saving of at least $850, 000 . 

3. A reorganization of all engineering activities in the City 
and County government would result in an annual saving of 
at least $600,000. 

4. The realignment of duties and responsibilities of hospital 
institutional workers would maximize use of manpower, permit 
a reduction in the number of personnel required, and result 
in an annual saving of at least $640,000. 

5= The elimination of overlapping inspection activities between 
the Bureau of Building Inspection and the Department of 
Public Health would result in an annual saving of at least 
$200,000. 



SUMMARY 



6. A greater city-wide concentration on preventive maintenance 
activities concerning buildings and facilities would ulti- 
mately result in annual savings of several millions of dol- 
lars. The longer facility life will greatly postpone the 
cost of eventual replacement. These potential savings have 
not been included in the above calculations. 

The recommendations involving charter change amount to savings of 
about $500,000 a year, and deal mainly with the engineering and in- 
spection activities of the government. 



10 



SUMMARY 



RECREATION AND PARK DEPARTMENT 



A complete organization, manpower and methods study was made of 
the Recreation and Park Department. Possible annual savings of 
$600,000 without charter change and one-time savings which could be as 
high as $15,000,000 can be found in these major recommendations: 

1. Returning substandard and surplus land par-eels to the tax 
rolls. The sale of eight such properties alone could bring 
$5,72^,000 as a one-time saving, and could generate as much 
as $1,33^000 a year in taxes when fully developed. Among 
the properties involved are the Clement and Richmond Tennis 
Courts, Rolph and Bayview Playgrounds, Alta Plaza and 
Lafayette Square and McLaren, Sunset Heights, and Bayview 
Parks. The present capital improvement program for McLaren 
Park alone contemplates the expenditure of $6,500,000, with 
annual maintenance costs of $280,000 per year needed there- 
after . 

2. Discontinue the practice of purchasing land from General Fund 
appropriations after voters have defeated bond issues for the 
same purpose. 

3. Reallocate management and supervisory responsibilities, re- 
scheduling functions and eliminating overlapping and unneces- 
sary operations. This would result in annual savings esti- 
mated at $100,000. (Although the Park and Recreation Depart- 
ments were combined more than ten years ago, there is some 
feeling that these are still two separate departments, each 
with divergent objectives.) 

k. Rescheduling of program hours to reduce supervision time 
would save $65,000 a year. 

5. Establishing work performance standards for all field classi- 
fications should, on the basis of industry experience, result 
in a 15$ manpower saving of about $400,000 a year. 

6. Operating costs could be reduced and revenue increased by a 
realistic schedule of fees for activities which should be 
self-supporting or nearly so, adopting a policy that adult 
programs should generally be self-supporting. This should 
result in increasing the yearly revenue of the department by 
$850,000. 

7. Establishing a co-ordinating committee with the School Dis- 
trict to plan joint facilities, to avoid costly duplication 
and ensure maximum use of recreation areas would result in 
substantial savings which cannot be estimated at this time. 



11 



SUMMARY 



RECOMMENDATIONS WHICH INVOLVE 
CHARTER CHANGES 

Annual savings of $19,000,000 would result from certain 
charter changes. The changes relate to the Budget, Wage and 
Salary Administration, and the Purchasing Department. 



12 



SUMMAKY 



THE BUDGET' 



Modernization of San Francisco's budget methods and procedures, 
which are substantially the same today as when the charter was put in 
effect thirty years ago, should produce annual savings of $10,000,000. 
Normally, a budget is intended to control expenditures, but San 
Francisco's version works in reverse. In short, San Francisco's budget 
invites and encourages extravagance. 

No one person can, in the time available, thoroughly review and 
intelligently approve 125 department, bureau and division budgets 
totaling nearly $300,000,000. No summary or condensation of the bud- 
get is provided and there is too little demonstration of the relation- 
ship, If any, between funds requested and the health, safety or 
welfare of the citizens. There is little or no evidence that the pro- 
posed expenditures can be justified by "payout" or return on the 
investment. The budget documents themselves are voluminous and un- 
wieldy, containing several thousand pages of detailed information 
bound into three volumes weighing up to 130 pounds. 

Budget procedures focus exclusive attention on the increase over 
the previous year's expenses and there is little or no procedural 
effort to evaluate and justify already existing expenses. For all 
practical purposes, once a level of expense is established, it can 
continue indefinitely. Too frequently, departments can protect these 
levels of expense by deliberately spending the full budgeted amounts, 
whether for essential purposes or not and despite efforts of the 
Controller to prevent this practice. 

Furthermore, budgets can be inflated at the departmental level, 
to expand the department's function or increase its personnel, or to 
maintain job security, or in anticipation of drastic pruning by the 
Mayor and the Board of Supervisors. 

There is widespread complaint as to budget review procedure. Re- 
ductions are frequently made with no explanations to affected depart- 
ments. Reductions can remove an essential part of an activity and 
leave the remainder of the activity unchanged. By way of example, we 
cite the case where a proposed expenditure for an ambulance was cut in 
half. 

These remarks are not intended as a criticism of those involved 
in the reviewing process - but the system can certainly be questioned 
and in our opinion, the time has come to question it . 

We are therefore recommending a complete change in the concept of 
budgeting, and which would require changes in the Charter. The 
present Object of Expenditure budget should be replaced by a Work 
Program type, with requests for budget funds expressed in dollars 
needed to accomplish specific end results rather than in terms of dol- 
lars needed to buy certain commodities. These end results (Work 



13 



SUMMARY 



Programs) identify and describe the basic purposes for which depart- 
ments, bureaus or divisions are established, and shifts budgetary- 
emphasis from men, materials and machines to the functions, activities 
and services the city government provides to its citizens. 

Such a Work Program- type -budget conforms to the best current 
municipal practice and has many advantages. Department heads and 
others at supervisory levels will have an improved management tool, 
encouraging them to think and act in terms of planning and accomplish- 
ment. It will provide more meaningful information to the administra- 
tive and legislative branches of government. The reduction in size 
and content of the budget itself will improve the reviewing process 
and the quality of the decisions made. For the first time, the inter- 
ested citizen will know what services are now being purchased on his 
behalf, their cost, the nature of plans for new and expanded activities 
and their price tag. 

The steps necessary to the installation of a successful Work Pro- 
gram budget have been outlined in detail in our report, and can pro- 
duce savings of very substantial proportions, estimated at $10,000,000 
annually or five per cent of the total annual budget (excluding the 
School Department) of $200,000,000. 

(in a private corporation, with similar findings, it would not be 
difficult to realize a ten per cent saving, but the lower figure of 
five per cent is used here. ) 



Ik 



SUMMARY 



WAGE AND SALARY ADMINISTRATION 



Any major employer, whether government or industry, must adopt a 
basic philosophy defining the area of competition in the labor market. 
If the City and County of San Francisco were to compete with other 
employers of equivalent stature, then savings of $7,800,000 a year are 
both proper and possible with certain charter changes. 

On the nonmanagement level, the majority of city jobs are very 
similar to those in local private industry, with the exception of 
police, firemen, and railway operators. Many jobs in city service in 
the management are unique to public jurisdictions and therefore have 
little or no comparability in private employment. 

We recommend certain basic principles, including the principle 
that city rates of pay should be equal to the average rates of pay for 
comparable work elsewhere in California. 

All city jobs were grouped into broad classifications with the 
same general characteristics, and basic principles of sound salary 
administration were then applied to each group with the following 
results: 

1. Clerical and Technical . The result of equating earnings of 
city employees with the earnings of employees in private 
industry would save $4,000,000. 

2. Trades and Crafts . The results of a similar equation of pay 
would save $2,500, 000 . 

3- Municipal Railway Operators . The result of equating earn- 
ings with similar jobs in the larger California cities would 
save $500,000. 

k. Police and Firemen . The result of equating earnings of San 
Francisco employees with earnings of similar jobs in other 
California public jurisdictions would save $800,000. 

5. Management . Rates for these jobs should generally be equated 
to those of other California public jurisdictions. No esti- 
mate of savings could be made because available earnings data 
were inconclusive. 

The inequities inherent in the current salary administration are 
best illustrated by the fact that registered nurses with significant 
responsibilities and several years of training, are paid an average 
rate of $460 a month, while street sweepers, with minimal responsi- 
bilities and limited training, are paid a basic rate of $5^6 a month. 
We recommend the development of a modern over-all job evaluation system 
that will preclude such inequities, and will keep pay rates commensurate 
with job values. 



15 



SUMMARY 



Next, some general comments as to personnel policies: the proce- 
dure for recruiting employees should be faster and more flexible. The 
present system assumes that there is an abundant supply of applicants, 
eager for city service and available for employment at the city's con- 
venience. Our study indicates that this system has proved unreliable 
and unsuccessful. Instead of waiting for applicants to "sign up," the 
city should pursue a vigorous program of recruitment, and should amend 
its rules to permit use of judgment in measuring the qualifications of 
applicants. 

The charter requirement that employees must be San Francisco 
residents is unrealistic and should be abandoned, to the maximum 
extent possible. San Francisco should be engaged in a serious and 
continuing effort to secure the best possible caliber of employees, 
wherever they may be located. 

Equally important, a planned program to develop future management 
is essential. The city should accept the responsibility of ensuring 
that the right man is assigned to the right job at each step of the 
promotional ladder so that the top administrative jobs can always be 
filled by well-trained, highly qualified individuals. 

Finally, an employee relations program is needed to develop in 
each city employee a better understanding of over-all policies and 
goals, thus developing the unity of purpose necessary for successful 
city government. 



16 



SUMMARY 



PURCHASING DEPARTMENT AND RELATED ACTIVITIES 



Our major finding was that the present procedures and organiza- 
tion in the Purchasing Department and related activities should be 
revised to conform to good practice in both private and public juris- 
dictions, and given certain charter changes, annual savings of 
$1,000,000 could result. 

For example: entirely too much time and effort are being devoted 
to paper work involved in the processing of documents. Nearly two- 
thirds of the purchase orders deal with amounts under $100, many of 
these are for amounts less than $2, and yet the Purchasing Department 
itself estimates that the average cost of processing a purchase order 
is $8. 

There are opportunities for making many improvements in storeroom 
practices, suggesting a possible reduction in inventory values of 
around $750,000 and disposing of excess and obsolete stock. Many 
stock records show little or no activity during the last few years. 

Recurring annual savings of $400,000 would result from more effi- 
cient buying practices, elimination of unnecessary clerical details 
from purchaser's duties, and staff reductions due to improved methods 
and procedures. 

All of our task forces arrived at the same conclusion - that the 
"ownership" of all automobile vehicles and motorized equipment should 
be vested in a central department responsible for all maintenance, 
repair and incidental services, including replacements and new acqui- 
sitions. An over-all accounting system and cost control is proposed, 
including a recommendation that a centralized passenger car pool be 
established in the Civic Center. Savings in this regard could run as 
high as $200,000 a year. 

Consideration should be given to development of a city-wide 
central services agency, including a clerical, typing and stenographic 
pool, messenger service, mailing, office equipment maintenance, tele= 
phone service, information service and records retention and disposal. 
Savings could run as high as $275,000 a year. 

Equally important, the Ik separate tabulating installations in 
various departments, with the exception of the Police Department and 
the Board of Education, should be consolidated in a Central Data Pro- 
cessing Department to be administered by a Data Processing Manager. 
Savings of $175 > 000 a year could result from consolidation and central- 
ization of tabulating equipment and operating personnel; fuller equip- 
ment utilization; better scheduling of jobs and adoption of regular 
two-shift operation. No estimate was made of possible savings from 
centralizing electronic data processing equipment yet to be installed, 
but the savings should be very substantial . 

In addition, the survey of the Purchasing Department and related 
activities also disclosed possible one-time savings of $300,000 to 
$430,000 and an annual saving of $30,000 - all of which can be effects! 
without charter changes. 



SUMMARY 



FINANCIAL RECAPITULATION 



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A 

REPORT 

COMPARING SAN FRANCISCO'S 

TAXES AND EXPENDITURES 

WITH THOSE OF 

MAJOR AMERICAN CITIES 



BY THE 
BUDGET TASK FORCE 

OF THE 

MAYOR'S COMMITTEE 

FOR MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT 






COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 

Letter of Submittal of Comparative Cost Study 

June 1, 196l 



Marshall G. Mustain, Project Director 
Mayor's Committee for Municipal Management 
San Francisco, California 

Dear Mr . Mustain : 

Attached is the report of a study addressed to the question, 
"How do San Francisco's expenditures compare with those of other 
major American cities?" 

The report presents the essence of a large volume of statis- 
tical material. The study included U. S. Bureau of the Census 
publications on city government finances over the ten- year period 
from 19^9 to 1959.. publications of the International City Managers 
Association, reports of the Controller of San Francisco and the 
Controller of the State of California, studies made by civic groups 
in various parts of the nation, treatises by research foundations, 
the budgets of a number of cities, consultation with university 
researchers and correspondence with the Bureau of the Census and 
with officials and others in comparable cities. 

The purpose of the study was to find a reliable answer to 
the question asked. It is believed that the report presents the 
answer objectively -- the statistics speak for themselves. 



Thomas J. Davis, Jr. 
Budget Task Force 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page No. 



Introduction 

Total Expenditures Per Capita 

Expenditures for Basic Functions 

Tax Levels 

Comparison with California Cities 

Increase in Taxes 19^9-59 

Conclusion 

Appendix - Definitions 

- Statistical Tables 

- Total Expenditures 

- Recreation and Parks 

- Public Buildings 

- General Control 

- Fire Protection 

- Public Health 

- Police Protection 

- Property Taxes 

- Total Taxes 

- Increase in Taxes 19^9-59 



3 
k 




5 
6 




7 

8 




9 




Exhibit 


I 


Exhibits II-X 


Exhibit 


II 


Exhibit 


III 


Exhibit 


IV 


Exhibit 


V 


Exhibit 


VI 


Exhibit 


VII 


Exhibit 


VIII 


Exhibit 


IX 


Exhibit 


X 


Exhibits DC & X 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 



INTRODUCTION 



At the outset of our study of the municipal government, we asked 
ourselves the questions, "How do our expenditures compare with those 
of other major American cities? Is San Francisco spending less or more 
than its sister cities, and are its expenditures decreasing or increas- 
ing at a steeper rate?" 

Six other major cities which, like San Francisco, combine city and 
county functions in one municipal government were used for comparison. 
Those cities were Baltimore, Boston, Denver, New Orleans, Philadelphia, 
and St. Louis. 

Fortunately there are several other aspects of these cities, in 
addition to their combined form of government, which recommend them for 
purposes of comparison. All are major cities, serving as the financial 
and commercial hubs of their respective areas. Four of them are ports. 
Tourists and trade conventions bring transients in considerable numbers 
to most of these cities. Four of them suffered population decreases in 
the past ten years in roughly the same proportion as San Francisco, 
while the other two increased slightly. 

Official U. S. Census Bureau data on municipal finances for the 
fiscal year ending in mid-1959 were used, with all figures converted to 
a per capita basis in order to provide the most meaningful basis of com- 
parison. Necessarily, we could not concern ourselves with relative 
efficiency, quality of service rendered, or even the desirability of 
having the services and functions provided. We examined the statistical 
evidence, and our findings were as follows: 



TOTAL EXPENDITURES 
DOLLARS PER CAPITA 



SAN FRANCISCO VS. 6 CITIES WITH 

COMBINED CITY/COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

1959 



25 



50 



75 



100 



125 



150 175 



SAN FRANCISCO - $218 



AVERAGE OF 6 CITIES - $150 



200 



45% 

OVER AVERAGE 



DEDUCTIONS WERE MADE FROM TOTAL EXPENDITURES ON ACCOUNT 
OF SCHOOLS AND PUBLIC UTILITIES. FOR CENSUS BUREAU CLAS- 
SIFICATION, SEE DEFINITION OF EXPENDITURES IN APPENDIX. 



225 



fd 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 



I. IN TOTAL EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA 
SAN FRANCISCO WAS THE HIGHEST 

Total expenditure shows the general magnitude or level at which 
the municipal operation is conducted. Two subtractions were made 
from this total figure. First, expenditures for schools were sub- 
tracted because they vary widely in size, method of financing, and 
in many cases are not under the control of the municipal government. 
Second, public utility expenditures were subtracted because to the 
extent they are offset by revenues, only their deficit, if any, 
could be considered a burden to the municipal budget. 

In total expenditure, San Francisco's per capita figure of $2l8 
was higher than any of the other six cities, k-5$> above their average 
of $150. 

To illustrate the effect of this difference upon our city budget, 
if our expenditures had beer, at the average level, our budget would 
have been lowered by some fifty million dollars . 



MAJOR MUNICIPAL FUNCTIONS 
DOLLARS PER CAPITA 

SAN FRANCISCO VS. 6 CITIES WITH 

COMBINED CITY/COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

1959 



10 



15 



PUBLIC 
BUILDING 
OPERATION 



SF-$2.68 



.54 



74% 

OVER AVERAGE 



FIRE 
PROTECTION 



SAM FRANCISCO - $1 7.29 
I I 

AVERAGE OF 6 CITIES - $10.30 



RECREATION 
AND PARKS 



SF - $7.73 
I 
AVG. - $5.02 



54% 

OVER AVERAGE 



M'i 



OVER AVERAGE 



PUBLIC 
HEALTH 



SF - $6.63 
AVG. -$4.35 



52% 

OVER AVERAGE 



GENERAL 
CONTROL 



SAN FRANCISCO - $11.9' 
AVERAGE - $9.69 



23% 

OVER AVERAGE 



POLICE 
PROTECTION 



SAN FRANCISCO - $18.33 
I I 

AVERAGE OF 6 CITIES - $17.64 



4% 

OVER AVERAGE, 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 



II. IN BASIC FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT 

SAN FRANCISCO'S EXPENDITURES WERE HIGH 

This indication that San Francisco's municipal activity is 
carried on at high expenditure levels in comparison with others is 
reinforced by comparing several of the major functions of San 
Francisco's municipal operation with their counterparts in the six 
other cities.* 

For example, San Francisco's net expenditure for the operation 
of its park and recreational activities exceeded that of any of the 
cities, and was ^kfo above the average. Its cost of operating and 
maintaining public buildings was also the highest and jk$ above the 
average. And its expenditures for the legislative, executive and 
judicial functions (grouped by the Census Bureau under the heading 
"General Control" ) were higher than any and 23$ above average . 

Further, San Francisco's costs in the two categories of fire 
protection and public health (excluding hospitals) ranked second 
highest, being 68$ higher than the average for fire protection and 
52$ higher in public health. For police protection, however, our 
costs ranked approximately in the middle, exceeding the average by 
merely ^$. 



* In the interest of comparability between the cost of functions rather 
than of organizational units, it is the practice of the Census Bureau 
to combine under a single category activities that are related 
functionally although administered by various departments of the 
municipal governments; for instance, parks and recreation includes 
cultural activities. Census Bureau definitions used here are quoted 
in the appendix to this report. 



TOTAL TAXES 
IN DOLLARS PER CAPITA 



SAN FRANCISCO VS. 6 CITIES WITH 

COMBINED CITY/COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

1959 



20 40 60 



100 120 



SAN FRANCISCO - $129 



AVERAGE OF 6 CITIES - 



ViSWBiW* 



#5% 

OVER AVERAGE 



NOTE: SCHOOL DISTRICT TAXES EXCLUDED. 



PROPERTY TAXES 
IN DOLLARS PER CAPITA 

SAN FRANCISCO VS. 6 CITIES WITH 
COMBINED CITY/COUNTY GOVERNMENT 
1959 



20 40 



60 



80 100 



SAN FRANCISCO - $104 



AVERAGE OF 6 CITIES - $58 






~v 



79% 

OVER AVERAGE 



,J 



NOTE: SCHOOL DISTRICT TAXES EXCLUDED. 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 



III. IN TAXES PER CAPITA 

SAN FRANCISCO WAS EXCEEDED ONLY BY BOSTON 

San Francisco's property taxes per capita, at $104, were 
exceeded only "by Boston's and were 79$ above the group average of 
$58 per person. 

Turning to total taxes (which include property taxes) San 
Francisco's figure of $129 a person was again second only to Boston 
and k^fo higher than the average of $89- School taxes were ex- 
cluded in these calculations. 

The two charts on the two pages at left present the facts in 
graphic form. 



IV. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN COST OF LIVING 
NOT A SIGNIFICANT FACTOR 

The high cost levels of San Francisco in comparison with the 
other cities having combined city/county governments cannot be 
explained by the fact that the other cities are in the raid-West and 
East, whereas San Francisco is on the West Coast. 

The Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1959 made an extensive survey 
of the cost of living of workers residing in major cities.* Using 
Washington, D„C. as the base point at 100 the relationship of other 
cities was computed. San Francisco's index number was 103, the 
same as Boston; St. Louis was 102, Philadelphia 96, and Baltimore 
93-** 

Thus, San Francisco's index number is only 5$ above the average, 
yet its per capita expenditures exceed the six city average by k-5$>- 



* City Workers Budget Study, Monthly Labor Review, Vol.83, No. 8, 
August i960. 
** Figures for Denver and New Orleans not available. 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 



V. SAW FRANCISCO'S PER CAPITA EXPENDITURES HIGHER 
THAN COMPARABLE CALIFORNIA CITIES 

Because other large California cities do not combine city and 
county functions in one municipal government, as does San Francisco, 
it was necessary to identify the percentage of the combined expend- 
itures which can reasonably be attributed to city services alone in 
order to make comparisons. 

The tax rates of Los Angeles, San Diego, Oakland, Sacramento, 
and San Jose were examined, together with the tax rates for the 
counties in which they are located, excluding school district tax 
rates and public utility district tax rates. The city portion 
averaged ^kfo of the combined tax rate, and in all five of the cases 
studied, the percentages were very close to the 5^ average figure. 
This percentage was considered typical of the usual city-county 
relationship of expenditures in providing services to a city resident. 
(it is interesting to note the actual tax bill of an Oakland resident 
shows 54$ of the taxes paid were city taxes, excluding the school 
district.) We then applied this ^k$ figure to San Francisco's costs. 

The finding - San Francisco's per capita expenditure was higher 
than any of the California cities and l6$> above the average~ 

This method would not be expected to provide the degree of 
accuracy present in the comparisons with municipalities having com- 
bined city/county governments. Since, however, the method is 
reasonable, the result is valuable as an indicator of relative 
levels of expenditure . 

Furthermore, a similar conclusion was reached in an exhaustive 
study of California city and county finances recently concluded by 
the Haynes Foundation of the Social Research Center of Claremont 
College.* The researchers selected five counties and in each case 
added together the operating expenses of all the cities in the 
county, the operating expenses of the county itself, and the cost 
of all special districts in the county except school districts. The 
sum total in each case was then comparable to the total operating 
expenses in the City and County of San Francisco . On this basis of 
calculation San Francisco's per capita cost was 3^ higher than the 
average of the other five. 



* California Local Finance, Stanford University Press, i960. 



INCREASE IN TOTAL TAXES 
PER CAPITA 1949-1959 



S.F. VS 



6 CITIES WITH COMBINED CITY/COUNTY GOV 
5 MAJOR CALIFORNIA CITIES 



$10 $20 $30 $40 $50 $80 $70 



SAN FRANCISCO INCREASE - $65 
I 



AVERAGE FOR 6 CITIES - $43 



5 CITIES - $22 



S2% 



J 



67% 



^J 



OVER AVERAGE 



NOTE: SCHOOL DISTRICT TAXES EXCLUDED. 






OVER AVERAGE 



INCREASE IN PROPERTY 
TAXES PER CAPITA 1949-1959 



S.F. VS. 



{ 



6 CITIES WITH COMBINED CITY/COUNTY GOV'T 
5 MAJOR CALIFORNIA CITIES 



;io 



;20 



$30 $40 



SAN FRANCISCO INCREASE - $49 



AVERAGE 6 CITIES - $26 



5 CITIES -$10 



tsMMM 



H H M u»( i Lj " ir% ay 



11% 

OVER AVERAGE 



*.^**«— 






(60% 



. OVER AVERAGE 
NOTE: SCHOOL DISTRICT TAXES EXCLUDED. 



$50 






COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 



VI. TAXES RISE 100$ IN SAW FRANCISCO 
WHILE COST OF LIVING RISES 30$ 

San Francisco's total taxes * per capita increased 100$ in the 
10-year period from 19^9 to 1959- The increase was 52$ more than 
the average for the six major American cities, and 57$ more than 
the average for the five California cities. 

In that same ten-year period, San Francisco's property taxes 
increased per capita 88$.* The increase was 91$ more than the 
average for the non- California cities, and l60$ more than the 
average for California cities. 

These increases are particularly striking in contrast with the 
action during the same ten- year period for the Consumer Price Index. 
In San Francisco this index increased only 30$ compared with the 
increase of 100$ in taxes per capita. 



Exhibits attached in Appendix. 



* Subtractions were made for school taxes, 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 



CONCLUSION 

CITIES MAY DIFFER IN THEIR PROBLEMS AND THEIR 
METHOD OF HANDLING THEM. 

BUT THE CONCLUSION IS INESCAPABLE THAT SAN 
FRANCISCO'S LEVELS OF EXPENDITURE FOR MUNICIPAL 
GOVERNMENT ARE AMONG THE HIGHEST IN THE STATE AND 
THE NATION. 

FURTHERMORE, SAN FRANCISCO'S TAXES ARE RISING 
MUCH MORE STEEPLY THAN THE AVERAGE AND THREE TIMES 
AS FAST AS THE COST OF LIVING. 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 



APPENDIX 

OF 

DEFINITIONS AND STATISTICAL TABLES 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 
EXHIBIT I 



DEFINITIONS USED BY CENSUS BUREAU 

in 

Compendium of City Government Finances in 1959 



1. EXPENDITURE. --All amounts of money paid out by a government- -net of 

recoveries and other correcting transactions --other 
than for retirement of debt, investment in securities, extension of 
credit, or as agency transactions. Note that expenditure includes 
only external transactions of a government and excludes noncash 
transactions such as the provision of perquisites or other payments 
in kind. 

2. FIRE. --City fire fighting organization and auxiliary services thereof, 

inspection for fire hazards, and other fire prevention activ- 
ities. Includes cost of fire fighting facilities such as fire 
hydrants and water, furnished by other agencies of the city govern- 
ment. 

3- GENERAL CONTROL .- -The legislative and judicial branches of the 

government, the office of the chief executive, 
auxiliary agencies and staff services established to direct finance, 
law, recording, general public reporting, personnel administration, 
and other general administration. 

k. PARKS AND RECREATION .--Cultural- scientific activities, such as 

museums and art galleries; organized recre- 
ation, including playgrounds and play fields, swimming pools and 
bathing beaches; municipal parks; and special facilities for 
recreation, such as auditoriums, stadiums, auto camps, recreation 
piers, and yacht harbors. 

5. POLICE. — Preservation of law and order and traffic safety. Includes 

highway police patrols, crime prevention activities, police 
communications, detention and custody of persons awaiting trial, 
traffic safety, vehicular inspection, and the like. 

6. PROPERTY TAXES . --Taxes conditioned on ownership of property and 

measured by its value. Includes general property 
taxes relating to property as a whole, real and personal, tangible 
or intangible, whether taxed at a single rate or at classified rates, 
and taxes on selected types of property, such as motor vehicles or 
certain or all intangibles. 

7. PUBLIC HEALTH. --Conservation and improvement of public health, 

including clinics, environmental health, nursing, 
and other general public health services. School health services 
provided by health agencies (rather than school agencies) are 
included here. 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 
EXHIBIT I 



TAXES. --Compulsory contributions exacted "by a government for public 

purposes, except employee and employer assessments for 
retirement and social insurance purposes, which are classified as 
insurance trust revenue. All tax revenue is classified as general 
revenue and comprises amounts received (including interest and 
penalties but excluding protested amounts and refunds) from all 
taxes imposed by a government. Note that city tax revenue excludes 
any amounts from shares of State-imposed-and-collected taxes, which 
are classified as intergovernmental revenue. 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 
EXHIBIT II 



TOTAL EXPENDITURES PER CAPITA - 1959 
(Less Utilities Revenue and Education Expenditures) 



i960 


1959 


Per 


Population 


Expenditures 


Capita 


(M) 


($MM) 


($) 


r Government 


79 




494 


160 


939 


2.49 


159 


750 


93 


124 


2,002 


278 


139 


791 


172 


217 


627 


69 


110 



5,603 


84o 


150 


4,812 


668 


139 


7^3 


162 


218 



Denver 

Baltimore 

St. Louis 

Philadelphia 

Boston 

New Orleans 

Total 

Total- -ex Boston 
San Francisco 

San Francisco vs. Total +45$ 

San Francisco vs. Total--ex. Boston* +57$ 

5 California Cities over 150,000 Population 

Los Angeles 
Oakland 
Sacramento 
San Diego 
San Jose 

Total 
San Francisco 

(54$ Imputed to City Functions) 
San Francisco vs. Total 



2,479 


276 


111 


367 


33 


90 


192 


18 


99 


573 


41 


72 


204 


19 


93 


3,815 


387 


101 


743 


87 


117 



* This supplementary calculation was provided "because in 7 of "the 9 com- 
parisons, the figure for Boston was sufficiently higher than the other 
five cities to exert a disproportionate effect upon the statistical 
average . 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 
EXHIBIT III 



EXPENDITURES FOR RECREATION AND PARKS - PER CAPITA - 1959 

(Net of Revenue, Excluding Capital Outlay) 

6 Cities with City/ County Government 



1959 





I960 

Population 

(M) 


Expend- 
itures 
Excl. 
Cap. ($M) 


Revenue 
($M) 


Net 
Expend- 
iture 
($M) 


Per 

Capita 
($) 


i 

Revenue 

to 
Expense 


Denver 


494 


3,284 


1,043 


2,241 


4.54 


31 


Baltimore 


939 


5,368 


961 


4,407 


4.69 


18 


St . Loui s 


750 


6,006 


1,054 


4,952 


6.60 


18 


Philadelphia 


2,002 


10,509 


732 


9,777 


4.88 


7 


Boston 


791 


4,952 


122 


4,830 


6.11 


2 


New Orleans 


627 


2,715 


772 


1,943 


3.10 


28 


Total 


5,603 


32,834 


4,684 


28,150 


5.02 


14 


Total- -Ex Boston 4,812 


27,882 


4,562 


23,320 


4.85 


16 


San Francisco 


743 


7,446 


1,700 


5,746 


7-73 


23 



San Francisco vs. Total 

San Francisco vs. Total--Ex Boston 



+54$ 
+59$ 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 
EXHIBIT IV 



EXPENDITURES FOR GENERAL PUBLIC BUILDINGS 
(Less Capital Outlay) 
6 Cities with City/County Government 



Denver 
Baltimore 
St . Loui s 
Philadelphia 
Boston 
New Orleans 
Total 

Total— Ex Boston 
San Francisco 

San Francisco vs. Total 

San Francisco vs. Total--Ex Boston 



i960 

Population 
(M) 


1959 

Expenditures 

($M) 


Per 

Capita 
($) 


k9h 


485 


.98 


939 


1,175 


1.25 


750 


438 


•58 


2,002 


3,922 


I.96 


791 


1,172 


1.48 


627 


1,447 


2.31 


5,603 


8,639 


1.54 


k,8l2 


7,467 


1-55 


7+3 


1,990 


2.68 



+73$ 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 
EXHIBIT V 



EXPENDITURES FOR GENERAL CONTROL - PER CAPITA - 1959 



6 Cities With City/County Government 



Denver 
Baltimore 
St . Loui s 
Philadelphia 
Boston 
New Orleans 
Total 

Total- -Ex Boston 
San Francisco 

San Francisco vs. Total 

San Francisco vs. Total--Ex Boston 



i960 

Population 
(M) 


1959 
Expenditures 


Per 

Capita 
($) 


k9k 


5,687 


II.5I 


939 


6,^7 


6.91 


750 


6,622 


8.83 


2,002 


20,^35 


10.21 


791 


9,052 


11. kh 


627 


6,008 


9.58 


5,603 


5^,291 


9.69 


Ml2 


^5,239 


9.4o 


7^3 


8,851 


11.91 



+23$ 



+27' 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 
EXHIBIT VI 



EXPENDITURES FOR FIRE PROTECTION - PER CAPITA - 1959 
6 Cities with City/County Government 



Denver 
Baltimore 
St . Loui s 
Philadelphia 
Boston 
New Orleans 
Total 

Total- -Ex Boston 

San Francisco 

San Francisco vs. Total 

San Francisco vs. Total--Ex Boston 



i960 

Population 
(M) 


1959 

Expenditures 

($M) 


Per 

Capita 

($) 


494 


4,069 


8.24 


939 


12,550 


13.37 


750 


6,419 


8.56 


2,002 


16,339 


8.16 


791 


13,743 


17-37 


627 


4,612 


7-36 


5,603 


57,732 


10.30 


4,812 


43,989 


9.14 


743 


12,844 


17.29 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 
EXHIBIT VII 



EXPENDITURES FOR PUBLIC HEALTH - PER CAPITA - 19$ 9 
(Excluding Hospitals) 
6 Cities with City/County Government 



Denver 
Baltimore 
St . Loui s 
Philadelphia 
Boston 
New Orleans 
Total 

Total — Ex Boston 
San Francisco 

San Francisco vs. Total 

San Francisco vs. Total — Ex Boston 



i960 

Population 
(M) 


1959 
Expenditures 

(W 


Per 

Capita 

($) 


494 


2,181 


k.kl 


939 


1^1*2 


4.73 


750 


2,400 


3-20 


2,002 


5,871 


2.93 


791 


8,373 


10.59 


627 


1,079 


1.72 



5,603 


24,346 


4-35 


4,812 


15,973 


3-32 


743 


4,929 


6.63 



+52$ 

+100$ 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 
EXHIBIT VIII 



EXPENDITURES FOR POLICE PROTECTION - PER CAPITA - 1959 
6 Cities with City/County Government 



i960 

Population 
(M) 


1959 
Expenditures 


Per 

Capita 

($) 


494 


6,048 


12.24 


939 


19,834 


21.12 


750 


14,858 


19.81 


2,002 


32,865 


16.42 


791 


19,143 


24.20 


627 


6,082 


9.70 



Denver 
Baltimore 
St . Loui s 
Philadelphia 
Boston 
New Orleans 
Total 

Total— Ex Boston 

San Francisco 



San Francisco vs. Total +h 

San Francisco vs. Total — Ex Boston +1] 



5,603 


98,830 


17-64 


4,812 


79,687 


16.56 


743 


13,618 


18.33 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 
EXHIBIT IX 



PROPERTY TAXES PER CAPITA 1949/1959 







(Exclusive of 


School 


Taxes ) 










1950 
Pop. 
(M) 


1949 

Property 

Taxes 

($MM) 


Per 
Capita 

(♦) 


i960 
Pop. 
(M) 


1959 

Property 

Taxes 

($MM) 


Per 

Capita 

($) 


Increase 




$ Per 
Capita 


<f> Per 
Capita 


6 


Cities with City /County Government 










Denver 

Baltimore 

St. Louis 

Philadelphia 

Boston 

New Orleans 


4l6 
950 

857 

2,072 

897 

570 


12.0 

3.2 

22.0 

52.0 

6.2 

9.0 


28.85 
33.68 
25.67 
25.10 
69.12 
15.79 


494 
939 
750 
2,002 
791 
627 


23.0 
62.8 
29-5 
83.O 
115.0 
14.0 


46.56 
66.88 

39.33 
41.46 

145.39 
22.33 


17.71 
33-20 
13.66 
I6.36 
76.27 
6.54 


61.4 
98.6 
53-2 
65.2 
110.3 
41.4 



5,762 


189.O 


32.80 


5,603 


327.3 


58.42 


25.62 


78.1 


4,865 


127.0 


26.10 


4,812 


212.3 


44.12 


18.02 


69.O 


775 


43.0 


55-48 


743 


77.5 


104.31 


48.83 


88.0 



Total 

Total— Ex 

Boston 

San Francisco 

San Francisco vs. Total +69$ +79$ +91$ 

S.F. vs. Total— Ex Boston +113$ +136$ +171$ 

5 California Cities Over 150,000 Population (i960) 

Los Angeles 1,970 37.O 18.78 2,479 76.O 30.66 11.88 63.3 

Oakland 384 9.5 24.74 367 15-0 40.87 16.13 65.2 

Sacramento 137 3-5 25.55 192 5.0 26.04 .49 1.9 

San Diego 334 6.0 17-96 573 13.O 22.69 4.73 26.3 

San Jose 95 1.5 15-79 204 5.0 24.51 8.72 55.2 

Total 2,920 57.5 19.69 3,815 114.0 29-88 10.19 51.8 

San Francisco 775 23.2 29.94 743 41.9 56.39 26.45 88.3 

(54$ Imputed to City Functions) 

San Francisco vs. Total +52$ +89$ +l6C# 



TOTAL TAXES PER CAPITA 1949-1959 
(Exclusive of School Taxes) 



COMPARATIVE COST STUDY 
EXHIBIT X 



1950 
Pop. 



1959 
Total 
Taxes 
($MM) 



Per i960 
Capita Pop. 



6 Cities with City/County Government 



Denver 

Baltimore 

St. Louis 

Philadelphia 

Boston 

New Orleans 

Total 

Total- -Ex 

Boston 

San Francisco 

S.F. vs. Total 
S.F. vs. Total 



416 
950 
857 
2,072 
897 
570 



18 
39 

37 
90 
65 
18 



43.27 494 

41.05 939 

43.17 750 

43.44 2,002 

72.46 791 

31.58 627 



1959 
Total 
Taxes 
($MM) 



34 
77 
60 

179 
118 
30 



Per Increase 
Capita $ Per # Per 
($) Capita Capita 



68,83 
82,00 
80.00 
89.41 
149.18 
47.85 



25.56 
40.95 
36.83 
1+5.97 
76.72 
16.27 



Ex Boston: 



+39# 
+55 -^ 



+45$ +52$ 
+64$ +73# 



59.1 
99.8 

850 
105.8 

105.9 
51.5 



5,762 


267 


46.34 


5,603 


498 


88.88 


42.54 


91.8 


4,865 


202 


41.52 


4,812 


380 


78.97 


37-45 


90.2 


775 


50 


64.52 


743 


96 


129.21 


64.69 


100.3 



5 California Cities Over 150,000 Population (i960) 



1,970 
384 
137 
334 
95 



58 

13 

4 

9 
2 



Los Angeles 
Oakland 
Sacramento 
San Diego 
San Jose 

Total 

San Francisco 

(54$ Imputed to City Functions) 

San Francisco vs. Total 



29.44 2,479 

33 «85 367 

29.20 192 

26.95 573 

21.05 204 



133 
24 

9 

23 

9 



53-65 
65.40 
46.88 
40.14 
44.12 



24.21 82.2 

31.55 93.2 

17.68 60.5 

13.19 48.9 

23.07 109.6 



2,920 


86 


29.45 


3,815 


198 


51.90 


22.45 


76.2 


775 


27 


3^.84 


743 


52 


69.99 


35.15 


100.3 



+18$ 



+35# +57# 



>5~ 



52. tf ^ 



A REPORT TO THE 

BLYTH-ZELLERBACH COMMITTEE 



ON 

MODERN MANAGEMENT 

FOR SAN FRANCISCO 



Police Department 
Chief Administrative Officer 

JUNE 1961 VOLUME 2 



POLICE DEPAHEMEHT 
CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 



Report of the 
Task Force 



Juno 



A 
HEPORT 

mm ssooiacsRiMxraHs 

CQHCEBHIEG THE ACTI?XT3Q35 0? 

22E POLICE EEPAR3MSWT 

OP 1® GEBT AHD CWBHTJr 

OF SM FRANCISCO 



B£ SHE 
BUDGET TASK FORGE 

OP TEE 

MAYOR 3 S 0QMMXS3SB 

FOR MC3KECXP.AL MAHAtiEMER? 



MAT 19fe 



BOUCE 

iettjerof sammta* of hspqbj obvoubs i^sssmm 

May* as6l 

Marshall G. Ostein 

Project Director 

J&yor's Committee for l&ziicipal Management 

San Francisco, California 

Dear Mr. Mustain; 

The Task Force assigned to study the Police Department submits 
herewith its report. 

The assignment of the Task Fbree was to review the activities of 
the Police Beparbaent in which business principles might apply and 
prove helpful. 3h other vords the assignment covered such metfesrs 
as organization structure, administrative procedures, methods and 
personnel policies, and did not extend into the professional aspects 
of police work. 

Time permitted for the review was short in relation to a depart- 
ment of over 1,800 personnel conducting a complex operation. Ti?.a 
study covered a period of eight weeks and occupied the aa^or portion 
of the time of two Thsk Force members, and part time of a third 
member. Their work induced interviews with the heads of all Bureaus 
and major units in the department, with the heads of most of the 
details within the Bureaus and with the supervisory personnel in five 
of the District stations. They studied treatises, publications and 
reports on police administration, corresponded with and interviewed 
officials of other police departments, and developed and analyzed 
statistics concerning various aspects of the San Francisco Police 
Department <■ 

As stated at the outset, our assignment did not include the pro- 
fessional aspects of police administration . We, therefore, express 
no opinion on the effectiveness of the Department in lav enforcement. 
The dedication of the Police CteSHttission^ the Chief of Police and many 
members of the Department was recognized, however, and is a crecit to 
the (-ity of San Francisco. In such a complex field it is nevertheless 
believed that professional police experience can be supplemented 
the administrative experience on which "Oils report is based. We feel 
that effectiveness of the Department can be increased by adoption o£ 
the recommendations in this report, and that budgetary savings can be 
realized concurrently. 

At all levels the Task Force members were received with 
cordiality end cooperation, for which they would like to express their 
appreciation. Many of the recommendations in this report stem from 
thoughtful suggestions on the part of members of the Bailee Depcrtznent, 

Thomas J Davis, Jr., Chairman 
Allan M. Chambllss 



POLICE 



TABLE OP CCgfTEFJS 
POLICE DEPARTMENT REPORT 



Pag . 

I. Introduction and Saasary 3 
II. Methods 

A. System for Report Dictation ami Traaseription ■ 9 
Bo System £0? Ixdoi-ms-tioa Storage 

and Retrieval 13 

Co Utilization of Automotive Equijasent 3A 

nio Personnel Administration 

Ao SuBsaary 17 

Bo Findings 16 

C. Reccssjaendations (lib Charter Changes) 2k 

D. Recansaeadations (Charter Changes Required) 31 

IV. Organization 

A. ReeoBasandations 37 

B. Coaaente on Organization Chart 3d 

C. District Statioae ^3 



INTRODUCTION 

AND 

SUMMARY 



SOUUfc 



REPORT OF BEVIEW OF PQLECB DEPARTMENT 

I^^Pn ^HJCKCION 

As background, the Police Department budget for the fiscal year 
1960-1961 was $l*t,600, 000 . She cost per capita for police protection 
doubled from 19^9 to 1959 while the Consumer Price Index rose only 
30$. The task of the Department continues to grow in difficulty as 
the composition of San IJrancisco's population changes, criminals 
"become more adept and mobile and subversive activities intensify., 
Ifae question is pertinent^ therefore, •whether measures can be 
employed to provide more effective police protection per dollar spent c 

On the basis of this survey and the general business experi<3nce 
of the Task Force, it is felt that there are several areas in which 
the application of methods and principles proved in business practice 
could be helpful to the Department and reduce costs „ Suggestions 
range from measures which promise tangible economies of substantial 
size to measures which over the long range should contribute to a 
constant improvement in the calibre and capability of the police 
force. 

2ae paramount intent of all the suggestions in this report is to 
assist the Department in enhancing police careers for people with an 
outstanding combination of mental alertneas, physical fitness t 
unshakable integrity, who are well educated, highly trained, assigned 
only to woi'k requiring police skills and are recognized, promoted and 
rewarded on a merit basis , 

!Zhe recommendations fall into the following categories: 

Ao jfethoda 

lo Substitute a system of dictating equi£&ent and civilian steno- 
graphic pool for the current practice in which patrolmen^, 
detectives and others personally type their own reports. 

2. Provide for the Intelligence Units 

a. !3hpe recorders for use in surveillance cases where the 
amount of data tases memory and notebooks are net 
practical. 

b. Improved system of information storage and retrieval with- 
out which fully effective use can hardly be made of the 
vast amount of data received. 

3» Establish a motor pool for more efficient use of vehicles . 

h,. Increase utilisation of the capabilities of the Central 
Besords Section by the various, special details. 



>OLXCE 



Bo Personnel 

1. Institute a systematic recruiting program,, 

2. Raise standards for hiring police officers, end establish 
annual physical examinations., 

3. Expand in-service training programs. 
h» Adopt a simplified rating system. 

5. Revamp promotion system to give weight to demonstrated ability a 

6. Plan for greater us 3 of civilian personnel to replace police 
officers. 

7» Increase disciplinary powers of the Chief of Bolice. 

80 Give Chief of Police authority to remove inspectors from 
investigative wort if their performance is unsatisfactory. 

C. Organization 

la Reduce the number of executives reporting directly to 

Chief so that his span of control may be brought more nearly 
into bounds proved desirable in industry. 2his would give 
the Chief more time for the problems of ma^or policy and 
direction. 

2. Consolidate some of the special bureaus and units into 
logical groups so as to reduce overhead and facilitate 
coordination and deployment of manpower to equalise ra- 
wer KLoads . 

3. Establish a comprehensive function of organization and cost 
control and methods and equipment research and analysis. 

he Institute a comprehensive study in depth of the optimum 
number of pol5.es districts for San Francisco; construct no 
new stations until the study has been completed and a policy 
has been adopted ou the number of districts. 

Findings and recommendations follow the above sequence of topics. 



?OLICE 



SOMHABT 

It should "be irememhersd that the time available for review of the 
Eblice Department restricted -else numher of subjects that could, he 
considered in the hrief period permitted o In addition this prevented 
analysis in sufficient depth for positive recommendation on some 
subjects that were identified as deserving attention. 3he recom- 
mendations that are made, however, ars submitted with confidence that 
they are "based on adequate study and analysis and should he helpful 
to the Department in its complex task. 

Ihe study identified potential savings estimated conservatively 
at $1,000,000 annually. Eo charter change would he required to effect 
•these savings. She specific areas in which these potential savings 
lie are the following: 

1. Estahlishment of a system for phoning offense and other 
reports (excluding those in the Traffic Bureau) from the 
field to dictating machines for transcription in a steno- 
graphic pool at the Hall of Justice. !3he potential saving 
in working time of patrol and investigative personnel equals 
the full time of 37 officers. If the Department were 
reduced hy 37 officers and the requisite number of typists 
were engaged the saving would approximate $830,000 a year. 
Ihere is reason to think the potential saving from such a 
system would suhstantially exceed this amount. 

2. Substitution sf civilian personnel for police officers in 
numbers sufficient to hring San Francisco's percentage of 
civilians to a level approaching that of major West Coast 
cities. 5he saving would approximate $250*, 000 a year. 

3. Reduction in siumber of district stations representing 
potential saving of $100,000 annually per station without 
curtailing patrol time available for coverage. If, as 
considerable evidence and analysis appears to indicate^ 
reduction to, for instance, four stations trculd he feasible 
the annual saving would he $500,000. 

3he fesk Force recommends the measures descrihed in #1 and 
above. 2he Task Porce recommends an objective study of the reduction 
in number of stations. 

Potential savings of greater magnitude and importance would he 
expected from adoption of the other measures recommended for which no 
specific dollar estimates could he made. 



POLICE 



Kost important of all, in toe opinion of the Task Force, are the 
recommendations concerning pei'soanel. Implementation of these recom- 
mendations would surely enhance the professional and administrative 
capacity of the Department . /aid of almost equal importance is the 
establishment of a comprehensive unit for research and analysis 
staffed to conduct the incisive studies of organization, cost control, 
manpower utilization and usethods evaluation that have proved so 
valuable in industry. 

The recommendations concerning Msthods could be adopted without 
amendment to the City Charter «> These include the dictating system 
for reports, substitution of civilian personnel for police officers, 
establishment of an automotive pool to be operated in accordance with 
suggested principles, and reduction in the number of District 
Stations, 

Many of the recommendations concerning personnel could be 
adopted without charter change. Some of the most important, however, 
would require charter amendment. 9iese latter include employment 
eligibility, promotion, retirement, establishment of two grades of 
Inspectors, and increased disciplinary authority for the Chief. 

Revision of the organisation structure aleng the lines suggested 
would apparently require amendment to perMt the appoinimsent of 
additional Deputy Chiefs and perhaps even with respect to realignment 
of duties and reporting relationships of souse of the Bureau Heads 
and Directors. 



II 

MSIEODS 



Page 

A. System for Repori Dictation and 

Transcription 9 

B. System for Information Storage and 

Retrieval 13 

C. Utilisation of Automotive Equipment Ik 



POLiUE 



II. METHODS 
A. SYSTEM FOR REPORT DICTATION AMBJ a'hAMSORIPlIQN 

FINDINGS 

1. One hundred thousand police reports annually. 

Every criminal offense and wery suspicious occurrence or 
other incident germane to la*; enforcement that becomes known 
to the police requires an initial report by a police officer 
who is in the field or goes from headquarters to the location 
of the problem. In 1959 the Police Department handled 66,000 
separate offenses and incidents. In addition to the initial 
reports on those offenses aid incidents, a large number of 
follow-up reports must be made by Inspectors and other per- 
sonnel who go into the field to investigate in order to dis- 
pose of cases by arrest or otherwise. On the bapis of our 
inspection of the files in the F.ecord Room and observations 
in the various investigative units, we estimate that at least 
100,000 written reports a year (not including reports by the 
auto aceident details, the Intelligence Unit and some of the 
Juvenile Bureau) were made by patrolmen and investigators 
operating in the field. 

2. Reports typed by Police Officers. 

These 100,000 reports were typed personally by the uniformed 
police officers and the plsin-clothes inspectors who made the 
initial and follow-up investigations. In addition to the 
time spent at the typewriter, the police officer in many in- 
stances makes a special trip from the field to headquarters 
to type the report, returning to the field again afterwards, 
or comes in to headquarters early in order to have time to 
type and file his reports before, the end of his watch. 

3<> Over 73*000 man-hours annually are spent by 'police officers in 
the process of typing their reports. 

Officers supervising certain units estimate their men spend 
an average of an hour or mere a day in typing their reports 
plus another half -hour in travel between field and head- 
quarters for the purpose of typing and filing the reports.. 
This would mean that l6$to 20$ of their time is taken away 
from active law enforcement and wasted in clerical activity,, 
We limited our estimates, however, to smaller figures produced 
by sampling police records:, conducting typing tests, and ob- 
serving officers who were typing reports in a number of units „ 






On this basis ws 10 aan on p&troi end 166 

in the gpsciaii* actually engaged in the actJU 

of asking these reports! on offenses and Incidents in the i 
It is suggested that a syatea should be established in 
these aen would dictate their reports pr incipslly by tele* 
from the field to dictating aachines at the Ball of Justica 
for transcription by trained typists. Wa estimate that th«s 
suggested systea would save 13,755 hours a year for these ■ 
police officers . 

This is the equivalent of 37 full-time police officers The 
cost o irrent method is $36S £ 000 in time ape*, 
travel and typingo Another way of stating the matter is 
If the suggested system were installed and civilian typ 
were hired to transcribe from the machines » the same amount 
of patrol and investigative activity as at present coul 
provided by 37 fewer mat in this group of kf6 for a net « 
tion in payroll costs of $232 9 000 a year. 

It is not" suggested that 31 policy ra should 
necessarily be eliminated from the Polios Department, 
study of the effect of such reduction upon patrol cover 
investigation coverage and the like would have to be i«ia< s bj 
those competent to do so« And policy judgments would b&v. 
be made in determining how much of this potential savlr 
man-hours" should be translated into 'reduced numbers of police 
personnel or into improved law enforcement- o Wa can merely 
point out that ifc industry whenever a potential manpower 
saving is identified it is usually possible,, through re- 
allocation of work load, tc reduce the number of employees o 

The system is used by other Police Deper-rtaents, 

The suggested system is practical and workable Seve 
other police departmeata and Sheriff's offices are understood 
to employ such systems with success* including re( v 
lations in Portland and under the new adiainist nation in 
Chicago. The San Jose Department^, for instance; currently 
handles all the- reports of 159 officers in the uniformed 
division,, plus some of the reports of the Detective Division 
and Juvenile Division, by means, of a similar system employing 
dictating and transcribing equipment with a capital cost of 
$2 S 000„ The San Jose police told us the system performs 
excellently o 






5. Savings should exceed those calculated above. 

Our calculations were based on an average of one report per 
man-day, whereas in March of this year the average in the 
San Jose Police Department was 1.7 reports per man-day. 
Comparable experience in San Francisco would thus increase 
the amount of police officers' time involved in the typing 
and travel procedure by perhaps 70$ or more. 

Approached from another angle, our calculations resulted in 
less than 8$ of the working time of the officers involved as 
being spent In the typing and travel procedure. But in the 
San Jose Police Department the supervisory officers estimated 
informally for us that their patrolmen on the average had 
spent 20$ or more of their time in the process of typing and 
traveling to and from the Station to type their reports - 
which corresponds with the opinion of some of the supervisory 
officers in San Francisco. If in practice in San Francisco 
the proposed system would save 20$ of the working time of the 
group involved, the total man-hours would approximate the 
full time of 90 men. 

Not included in the calculations is an additional area of 
potential savings in the use of the system by headquarters 
and station personnel. Many administrative reports and 
memoranda are required to be made by such personnel. 
Pressure of time did not permit us to study the details of 
this subject sufficiently to make an estimate. 

Choice of the equipment find the details of its use should be 
made on the basis of careful research and analysis in the 
Police Department. Other police department systems should, 
of course, be studied in detail. Standard Oil Company of 
California should also be consulted because that company has 
installed a similar system after exhaustive analysis . Our 
recommendation, stated at the end of this section, will be 
restricted to the principles involved. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. A new system should be installed embodying the following 
major points to eliminate typing by officers rendering 
initial and follow-up reports: 



11 



>. V/.-.,) .'jl: 



a. Patrol officers will phone all offense and service reports 
to the Hall of Justice without leaving the field; detec- 
tives will also phone in their reports without leaving the 
field, except that in eases where they have to return to 
headquarters anyway they may be permitted, in accordance 
with procedures to be established by their supervisors, 

to dictate their reports to machines at headquarters when- 
ever the interest of time saving and prompt reporting will 
not be adversely affected. 

b. She phone call from the field will be switched to a dic- 
tating machine which records the message. 

c. A typist will type the message in a central stenographic 
pool. 

d. typing by these officers will be eliminated except in rare 
and special occasions. 

e. Officers will no longer be required to sign offense re- 
ports before going off watch. 

f. The hk hours now spent in learning to type in the Police 
Academy will be eliminated and except for instruction on 
dictating, the time saved will be spent on training in 
professional police matters. 

g. Use of the system by officers stationed at the Hall of 
Justice and District Stations for handling intre-unit and 
interdepartmental memoranda should be studied. 

2. Portable dictating machines should be provided for the Intel- 
ligence Unit. These should be small, battery powered and 
transistorized, and susceptible of concealment on the person. 
One or two of such units, costing about $200 per recorder, 
should be tested in action. 



12 



Bo SYSTEM FOR IHFORMftTIO N STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL 

FODIHGS 

The Intelligence Unit needs to have available to it an im- 
proved system for data storage and retrieval in order to discharge 
its duties. This unit focuses its activities on organised crime 
as distinguished from the criminal acts of individuals.. Thus- 
its major interest is in syndicates, rackets and groups linked 
with criminal rings in other jurisdictions. It is also concerned 
with subversive groups becavxse lihey foment, disorder and criminal 
action. Hinorlty r- siai i — - reli jious groups are - taeai ■ 
they, in some cases either tend to have a higher incidence of 
crime or are the target of other groups seeking to victimize them 
or exploit prejudice toward them for sinister reasons . Labor- 
management friction is included because of the endeavors by sub- 
versive elements to exploit such problems « 

This is a broad assignment. It is carried out through close 
collaboration with other governmental units, such as F.B.I. , 
Treasury, and California State, through linkage with the Intelli- 
gence Units of over 50 other police departments, and through the 
investigative activities of its own staff of 7 people- This 
activity develops an enormous number of pieces of information re- 
ceived from and sent to other government units and Intelligence 
Units . \n& it requires surveillance of parades, demonstrations 
and other large groups of people where the number of names and 
descriptions is too great for the sseaory to retain yet not^jooka 
cannot be used* 

Effectiveness of the unit could be increased by supplying 
small, transistorized tape recorders to the investigators for 
dictating their observations from near the scene of events while 
the data is still fresh in their memories . And without a modern 
system for information storage and retrieval it is difficult to 
conceive that very effective use can be made of the mass of data 
which is gathered at considerable cost and which will certainly 
increase in volume as time goes on. An electronic memory system 
would be ideal but disproportionately expensive. The IBM system 
of the Criminal Information Division could be extremely helpful 
but apparently cannot be employed because of the sensitivity of 
some of the intelligence unit information. Low cost systems do 
exist which would represent an improvement over the current 
filing system. 

RSCOMMEKDATIOH 

An improved system for information storage and retrieval for 
data collected by the Intelligence Unit should be carefully 
analysed. Ihe Bank of America experts in such matters, as well 
as the F.B.I, and Stanford Research Institute should be consulted 
informally for guidance in studying this matter. 



13 



UTILIZA TION OF AUTOMO TIVE EQUTH-EM? 

FIHDINGS 
1. Automobiles , patrol wagons, trucks are assigned es follows: 





: Automobiles : 






: : 


; 


Trucks and 




: Marked : 


Unmarked : 


Patrol Wagons 


Individuals 








(inc. Commission) 


3 


13 




Misc. Headquarters Units 


9 


9 


6 Trucks 


Investigative Units j 








Auto 




10 




Burglary 




11 




Fraud 




7 




General Works 




9 




Homicide 




k 




Missing Persons 




k 




Pawnshop 




2 




Robbery 




7 




Crime Laboratory 




1 




Intelligence 




3 




Juvenile 




8 




Special Services 




12 




District Stations 








(incl. relief) 


^9 




8 PW 


Traffic Units; 








Accident Investigation 








Bureau 


13 






Hit/Run 


2 


2 




Other 


5 


1 





TOTAL 



81 



103 



Ik 



Ik 



POLICE 



2= A review of mileage on each car for the twelve months ending 
June 30, I960 shows a wide variation between cars. The over- 
all average was 19*000 miles per car; marked cars averaged 
about 24,600 miles while unmarked ears averaged about 1^,250 
miles . The lower mileage :?or unmarked cars is due to the 
fact that they are normally in use only during the day, 
whereas the patrol oars are in use around the clock . How- 
ever, 35$ of the unmarked cars averaged less than 12,000 miles 
for the 12 months' period, which indicates that there is not 
a high percentage of utilisation of these vehicles. 

lo It is understood that the department plans to institute an 
automotive pool after the move is mads to the new Hall of 
Justice o It is recommended that the assignment of all auto- 
mobiles be carefully reviewed, and that they be reassigned 
in accordance with the following principles: 

a. Assign an automobile to an individual only if his work 
requires use of a car for the major portion of each day. 

b. Assign district radio sars as at present. 

c. Establish an automobile pool to service all other re- 
quirements for automobiles. This pool should be 
operated by the head of the garage, who would assign a 
car to any authorized person each time he has need of 
it. Hhen the car is returned to the garage, it is re- 
turned to the pool. Because of differences in equipment 
between vehicles, it will be necessary to group the poo3. 
cars "oy usage, so that the cars in each group are inter- 
changeable. 

It appears that a significant reduction can be made in the 
total number of automobiles required (particularly unmarked ears) 
if the above recommendations are carried out. 



15 



POLICE 



III 

PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION 

Page 

A. Summary 17 

Bo Findings 18 

C. Reeoanaendatioiis (No Charter Changes) 2k 

Do Recommendations (Charter Changes Required) 31 



16 



IIIc PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION 



SUMMAEJ 



1. Scope ; This report covers personnel administration in all 

bureaus of the department, and includes recruiting, 
hiring, training, appraisal, promotion, use of civilians, 
turnover, and personnel records. It is based on interviews 
with the heads of all bureaus and units in the department, and 
visits to the Police Academy, the Pistol Range, and five of 
the district stations. 

2. Summary of Findings : The senior officers of the police 

department are doing a conscientious job 
in most areas of personnel administration. However, they are 
handicapped in many respects by existing charter provisions, 
and, in some eases, by long-established practices which have 
outlived their usefulness. 

There is no active recruiting program for police personnel, 
because with present hiring standards, it is not considered 
necessary by the department. 

Appointment of applicants who meet the minimum educational and 
physical requirements is based on a written examination 
(weighted 80$) and an oral examination (20$). Recruits are 
given a iU-week training course which appears to be well 
planned and carried out. 

Performance of police officers is appraised by use of the 
Probst Rating System, but these ratings do not appear to be 
sufficiently useful to justify the time and effort required by 
the system. Promotion is based predaminantly on a written 
examination (75$) a»d on seniority (15$)- There i3 a strong 
feeling in the department that the best men do not always get 
promoted . 

Maintenance of discipline is handicapped by the fSet that 
effective disciplinary powers are reserved to the Police Com~ 
mission. 

There is widespread use of police personnel in assignments 
which could be handled just as well by civilians. The turn- 
over of civilian employees is very high, while police personnel 
turnover is favorably low c 



17 






Sum mary of Recom me ndations : Our recommendations are aimed at 

two basic objectives: 

a. To enhance police work as a profession by raising the 
standards for hiring, training, and promotion; and by 
deleting non-police functions from the work of police 
officers . 

b. To realize budgetary savings through greater use of 
civilian personnel. 

In line with these objectives, it is recommended that a 
systematic recruiting program be instituted; that educational 
standards for hiring be raised; and that in-service training 
be expanded. We also recommend a simplified and more practi- 
cal rating system, and a major overhaul of the promotion 
system to give weight to demonstrated ability. The Chief of 
Police should be given much greater disciplinary powers , and 
should also have authority to transfer inspectors to other 
duty. We feel strongly that a detailed study of the use of 
civilian personnel should be undertaken, and that a planned 
program of replacing police officers in certain jobs with 
civilians can lead to savings of at least $250,000 annually, 
without reduction in police efficiency. 

A detailed discussion of our findings and reeonnaendations 

follow 8 c 

Bo FUSDIMGS 



Recruiting: There is no active recruiting program aimed at 
attracting the best qualified men to the police 
department. No visits are made to colleges; and stimulation of 
interest in applying for appointment is limited to newspaper 
advertisements (placed by the Civil Service Commission), plus 
the occasional use of placards on college bulletin boards. 
• r 'ith present hiring standards, more aggressive recruiting 
efforts~are not considered necessary by the department. 



18 



POLICE 

Hiring; Minimum requirements of applicants for police 

positions include the following, among other require- 
ments : 

a. Education. High school graduate or equivalent. 

h. Age. Not less than 21, nor more than 35 years of age. 

Applicants who meet the minimum requirements and who have taken 
both a written and an oral examination are placed on one of two 
eligible lists; 

(1) A list of eligibles who have been residents of California 
for five years or more; or 

(2) a list of eligibles who are non-re3idents or have 
resided in California less than five years. 

The precedence on each list is determined by the examinations , 
of which the written examination counts 80$ and the oral 
examination, 20$. In making appointments, ^he resident list 
takes precedence over the non-resident list. 

The qualifications outlined above are all established by the 
Civil Service Commission, except that the oral examination is 
given by two police captains. 

The causes for rejection of applicants are illustrated by the 
following tabulation (based on the current certified eligible 
list Nj. 28): 

$■ of Original 
Applications Cause 



HO.O Rejected as ineligible based on application or 
on police record j or failed to respond for 
written examination. 
i)3.5 Failed written examination. 
5.5 Failed to respond for subsequent testsj or in 

Armed Forces. 
h„5 Failed physical, athletic, or medical test. 

1.0 Rejected after background investigation. 
9^.5 Total ineligible 
5.5 Total eligible 



19 



POL 

la general* the officers in the department seem satisfied with 
the caliber of recruits obtained under the existing system. 
However, there are a few who are definite3.y not satisfied; and 
some of these believe that police work can be up-graded to the 
point where the minimum entrance requirement is two, three, or, 
post;ibly ; four years of eollege. In the course of the survey, 
it was learned that such a requirement is in effect in certain 
other police departments . 

3- Training ; The Police Academy gives a lU«week training course 
to all recruits. Recently, there have been two 
classes per year; and the most recent class had about 45 re- 
cruits. IJhile no detailed survey cf the training program was 
made, the program appears sound, except for the inclusion of a 
typing course of 44 hours, which is commented on elsewhere in 
the recommendations. Instructors are drawn partly from the 
staff of the Academy and partly from the other bureaus and 
units. From comments made by a few members of the department^ 
it appears that the instructors -from other bureaus vary con- 
siderably in their teaching abixity and in their interest in 
this work. 

A well -conceived program of in-service training is given 
jointly by the Academy and the Traffic Bureau for members of 
that bureau. Very little is done in the way of in-service 
training for other members of the department. To some extent 
the lack of more such training may be attributed to lack of 
classrooms at the Academy-'-whieh situation will be remedied in 
the new Fall of Justice. However, a more fundamental cause 
appears to be that most commanding officers— particularly in 
the patrol branch— do not feel the need for any planned in- 
service training* 

The Police Pistol Range is used for training recruits and for 
the regular re-qualification of all police officers. The 
range operation includes facilities for reloading target am- 
munition. This wor& occupies from three to four men ; who re- 
load approximately 500,000 rounds per year. 

4. Rating of Perf ormance; The Probst Rating System is used to 

appraise each police officer's per- 
formance txrice yearly. The form used includes 102 separate 
items which each rater must read. The rater then checks those 
i/hich apply. Each patroLoan is rated by his sergeant, lieu*- 
tenant, and captain; each sergeant, by his lieutenant and 
captain; and each lieutenant, by his captain. The sheets are 
scored in the personnel bureau; and each company commander 
receives a list cf his men with their ratings. 



30 



POLICE 

This system is designed to produce a single over-all si 
indicating an individual's performance. A typical distribu- 
tion of scores is as follows: 

Rating A B+ B C+ C _C- B, D-, E 

# of Total 27^ IS? 25^ 1755 15? " 5% "l* 

From the above tabulation, it appears that in this system Gkfi 
of the men receive high ratings. Thus, it is not particularly 
valuable in singling out men of outstanding ability; although 
it may be helpful in identifying men with exceptionally poor 
performance „ 

The Probst System is not suitable for use in counseling men as 
to how to improve their performance; nor fo^.* selecting men 
with certain Qualifications for particular assignments (except 
that the over-all rating is a rather broad guide to general 
performance). Among captains in the department, opinions of 
the system vary from "worthless" to "useful if the nan is 
unknown to you. " 

One of the factors working against a high degree of 
objectivity in the ratings is a lack of confidence in the con- 
fidential nature of these sheets. Coupled with this- is the 
fear that your subordinate may be your superior when a new 
mayor assumes office; hence, it is wise to :?lay safe in your 
ratings of your subordinates. 

5» Promotion ; All promotions (to the next higher Civil Service 
rank) are based predominantly 0:1 a written exam- 
ination (75$ max.) and on seniority (15$ max.). There is a 
strong feeling in the depaz-tment that the best qualified men 
do not always get promoted. This feeling is shared by members 
of the survey group who noted a considerable disparity between 
rank and ability among numerous raembers of the department. 
The inadequacies of the present system of promotion appear due 
to: 

a. Failure to take into account an officer's character; 
and his ability in leadership, in initiative, in 
capacity for work,, and in other personal qualifications 
which cannot be measured by seniority or written tests. 

b. Failure to test a man's ability to translate 
theoretical knowledge into terms of practical appli- 
cations . " 



21 



POLICE 

6° Pis cl^llne ; Although the police department is a 

quasi-military organization, its commissioned 
officers are handicapped hy not having the disciplinary 
authority which would he considered a hare minimum in any of 
the armed forces, or for a department manager in any "business 
organization. Section 155 of the Charter reserves discipli- 
nary action to the Police Commission, as follows: ''Members of 
either department (i.e., Fire and Police) shall not he subject 
to dismissal, nor to punishment f vr any breach of duty or mis- 
conduct, except for cause, nor until after a fair and impartial 
trial "before the commissioners of their respective depart- 
ments ..." 

Most commanding officers are naturally reluctant to initiate a 
trial before the commission, and yet this is the only author- 
ised means of taking disciplinary action. It seems ohvious 
that this situation is a severe handicap to the maintenance of 
effective discipline. 

7„ Use of Civilian Personnel; There is vide spread use of police 

personnel in assignments which 
could he handled Just as well— and, in many cases, better — "by 
civilians. This observation is confirmed hy the following 
data showing use of civilians in the police departments of 
the following California cities: 





Civilians as $> of 




Total Employees 


San Francisco 


_,.„■, g-~|j^ 


Sacramento 


13-5 


Long Beach 


15.1 


Oakland 


15.2 


San I'iego 


15.8 


Los Angeles 


21.5 



There are several reasons why greater use is not made of 
civilian employees s 

a. Requests for additional civilian positions are made as 
additions to the total force, in order to make more 
policemen available for other duties. Thus, "budgetary 
restrictions have hampered the addition of civilian 
personnel. If civilians were requested as replacements, 
budgetary savings would result. 

h. With some notable exceptions, many members of the 
department feel that police training is required to 
handle all department positions other than routine cler- 
ical or accounting positions. This ignores the fact 
that much of the non-routine work at headquarters re- 
quires ability along supervisory or analytical lines, 
rather than training in professional police work. 



22 



c. The turnover of civilian personnel is very high. This 
is commented on in the succeeding section. 

d» Difficulties are experienced in obtaining civilian 
personnel who can meet the Job requirements, parti- 
cularly with regard to positions inhere weekend or night- 
shift work is required. 

8. Turnover of Personnel ; The turnover rate of police personnel 

is favorably low, but the turnover of 
civilian employees is excessive. The following tabulation 
shows the terminations for I960: 





Police 


Civilians 


Cause 


No. 
15 


..... 


So7" 

11 


__J. 


Resignations 


0.86 


9.1 


Layoffs 


- 


- 


5 


4.1 


Dismissals 


k 


0.23 


2 


1.6 


Military Leaves 


5 


O.29 


1 


O08 


Disability Pensions 


21 


1.21 


<= 


- 


Service Pensions 


16 


0.92 


„ 


. 


Deaths 


7 


o.uo 


1 


0.8 


Sub-Total 




"37^1 


"25 


"TO? 


Total Allowed 


1,73^ 


100.00 


121 


100.0 



There appear to be several reasons for the high turnover of 
civilian personnel: 

a. The working conditions and present location of the Hall 
of Justice compare unfavorably with job opportunities in 
the nearby financial district. 

^-, Poor supervision end the general attitude toward civilian 
employees, cited in Section 7 above, probably contribute 
to low morale. 

c. Inability to obtain suitable employees with permanent 
appointments through the existing Civil Service pro- 
cedure . 



23 






9» Personnel R ecords: There is considerable duplication of 

entries in the various personnel reports 
and records, result ing in wasted effort and additional chances 
for error in recording. Also, personnel statistics are not 
analyzed to present a concise summary of the current situa- 
tion, and the trend in such matters as turnover, sickness, 
deployment of men, etc. A more detailed discussion of these 
records is contained in the recommendations section of thi3 
report. 

C. RECOMMENDATIONS 
(Ho Charter Changes) 

A primary objective of many of the following recommendations is to 
enhance police work as a profession, and to enhance the caliber of 
police personnel. Thus, the recommendations are aimed at attracting. 
keeping, training, and promoting men of superior ability. However, it 
is evident that active recruiting efforts will be largely frustrated if 
the best men become discouraged by the promotional system and leave the 
department. A promotional system which gives weight to demonstrated 
ability must be coupled with an effective system for appraising per- 
formance. For these reasons, many of the following recommendations are 
inter -dependent . 

lo Recpp-i'feing? Regardless of opinions on the caliber of current 
recruits, if better men can be attracted to the 
police force, both the force and the city will, benefit. To 
help accomplish this, it is recommended that a systematic 
recruiting effort be planned and carried out. This program 
should include periodic visits to selected educational 
institutions to present the career opportunities in law en- 
forcement in San Francisco. Such visits should also be 
utilized to determine which students show the most promise 
for police work, both through discussions with the students 
and with their professors. Special efforts should then be 
made to attract these men to the San Francisco Police Depart- 
ment. In addition, a concise brochure covering the dap:::, 
ment should be made available to all interested young men. 
By these means it will be possible to upgrade the caliber of 
recruits as regards both natural ability and education. 

2. Hiring - Minimum Requirements ; It is recommended that in 

establishing the minimum re- 
quirements for applicants for police positions, the Civil 
Service Commission consult the Chief of Police to obtain his 
recommendations. It is also recommended that the minimum 
educational requirement be raised to two years of college. 
Implementation of this latter recommendation should be keyed 
to the recruiting program recommended above so that there is 
assurance of sufficient qualified applicants to fill 
vacancies . 



2k 



POLICE 



3. Recruit Training; 

a. In another section of this report it is being 
recommended that reports be dictated rather than 
being typed by the officer concerned. When this 
is put into effect, the kh hours of typing 
instruction for recruits should be eliminated. 

A portion of this time should then be allocated 
to instruction and practice in dictation., 

b. It is believed that the recruit training program 
would benefit from the following changes: 

(1) Schedule recruit classes more frequently so 
that they will average 20 - 25 recruits per 
class. This will result not only in smaller 
classes, but also in a more even work load 
for personnel at the Academy. It will also 
help to reduce the time lag in the filling of 
vacancies, which sometimes has created a 
problem in keeping units staffed to 
authorized strength. 

(2) Base the selection of instructors — part-time 
as well as full-time --on interest and 
competence in instructing rather than on 
organizational assignment. In this con- 
nection, it may be desirable to increase the 
staff at the Academy, if necessary, to place 
less reliance on part-time instructors. 

h. In-Serv ice Training; Lav; enforcement is not a static 

activity. Laws change; techniques of 
police work change; there are changes in criminal activities, 
in the composition of the population, and in many other 
factors which have a bearing on police work. Unless the 
nature and significance of these changes is understood by 
police officers, law enforcement will not be as effectively 
carried out as it could be. Therefore, it is recommended that 
a continuing program of in-service training be planned and 
carried out. To assure the maximum benefit from this program, 
it is further recommended that a training committee be estab- 
lished to counsel the Director of Personnel on the development 
of the programs. This committee should include the heads of 
the principal divisions of the department . 



5* Pblice Pistol Rangg : The present reloading of target 

ammunition is a "break-even operation 
when the salaries of the police officers doing this work are 
considered. This work should be done by civilian employees 
who could also work in the pits when required. 

All typing and mimeograph work, now done at the Eange, 

be transferred to tiie general office. The three set3 of card 
records new being kept on .-all policemen should be combined 
into one card, with a "flagging" system to indicate when each 
officer is due to requaiify. 

The above changes should permit a reduction in personnel from 
11 police officers to four officers and four civilians at an 
annual saving of about $35 > 000, \*hich includes an allowance 
for additional cost of typing and mimeographing in the general 
office, 

6. Rating of Perf ormanc:e i For maximum benefit, a system of 

performance rating in the police de- 
partment should be useful for the following purposes 5 

a. Selecting men for assignments based on their 
demonstrated ability. 

b. Counseling the nan rated so that he can improve 
his performance, 

c. Advising new commanding officers of the qualificat 
of men in their command. 

d. Helping to assure that the best qualified mer are 
promoted. Since any change in the promotion system 
would involve charter changes, this aspect will be 
discussed in a later section of this report. 



2.6 






In addition, it is desirable that the rating system be sir: 
and that it be as objective as possible. On the basis of 
these criteria, it is recommended that a rating system be 
developed along the folloxri.ng lines: 

Step 1: Appraise each man's performance relative to oth er 

men in his grade. This means that a man would 
not be "rated" on individual characteristics, but that bis 
overall value— considering leadership, initiative, 
character, dependability, etc.— would be Judged relative 
to ether men in his grade. In making this appraisal, a 
group of men would be listed in the order of their overall 
value, with the most valuable men at the top of the list, 
then the next most valuable, and so on to the least 
valuable man in the group (see examples given below) » 

Step 2: Assign a "Rating Score" to each man, based on his 

relative standing in the group in which he was 
rated. For each group the man at the top would be as- 
signed a "Eating Score" cf 100 ; the man at the bottom, a 
score of 70; and the men in between will be given pro- 
portionate scores. 

Example: In a district station, Lieutenant Smith has 
under him three sergeants, two of whom have 
five patrolmen, and o:ie has six. Each of the three 
sergeants ranks his own men as follows: 



Sgt. Brown 


Sjt. 


_ Jones 


■*&• 


Johnsor 


Fatroltaan A 


Patrolman F 


Patrolman K 


B 




G 




L 


C 




" E 




M 


D 




I 




N 


" E 




J 






P 






These appraisals should he made every six months, and the 
score for each man entered in his personnel jacket. If a 
man has been ranked differently by his lieutenant and his 
captain, both scores would be entered. 

7« Transfers Bettreen Bureaus and Units : To assure that the best 
qualified men are selected to fill vacancies in the various 
bureaus and units, the following procedure is recommended for 
handling transfers: 

a. All requests from men desiring transfer will be forwarded 
to the Director of Personnel who will keep these requests 
on file. 

b. When a vacancy occurs in any bureau or unit, the head of 
that unit will request the Director of Personnel to furnish 
a list of applicants for transfer. 

c. Upon receipt of such a recuest, the Director of Personnel 
will: 

(1) Obtain comments from each applicant's commanding 
officer regarding his suitability for the assignment. 

(2) Prepare a list of applicants with the commanding 
officers' comments and the most recent rating score 
of each applicant. 

d. Upon receipt of the above list, the head of the unit 
concerned will decide which applicants he wishes to x'ecora- 
mend, and will forward the list with his recommendations 
to the Chief of Police. 

e. The Chief of Police then designates the men to be 
transferred . 

8. Use of Civilians : It is estimated that substitution of 
civilian employees for police officers 
will mean an average annual saving of at least $1,600 per 
position. If San Francisco's percentage of civilian employees 
were increased from the preser.t 6.5$ to 15#-~a figure exceeded 
by four large California cities— a total of 158 positions 
would be involved, representing a saving of about $252,000 per 
year- 

It is recoiaasnded that the following steps be taken ir order 
to realize this saving: 

a. Undertake a detailed study to determine which positions do 
not require sworn personnel or training in law enforcement. 
The following types of work can and should be done by 
civilians, although many policemen are now engaged in 



29 



■ICE 

(1) Routine work which is essentially the same as work 
performed in business organizations, or work re- 
quiring relatively little training. Examples: 
Typing, filing, posting records, preparing summaries 
of data, and coding data from established guides. 

(2) Work requiring training in business methods and 
police department procedures and activities, but not 
training in law enforcement. Examples: Handling 
routine correspondence on requests for information, 
forms control, and supervision of clerical employees. 

(3) Work of a semi-police nature, such as the provision 
of school-crossing guards. Part-time employment of 
retired personnel for such duty would release many 
police officers for other duty. 

bo Collaborate with the Civil Service Commission to the end 
that suitable civilian employees will be made available. 

Co In order to reduce the excessively high turnover rate of 
civilians, institute a procedure for exit interviews to 
determine the causes, and thus point the way to cor- 
rective measures aimed at reducing turnover. 

d. Institute a planned program of replacing police officers 
with civilians, so that the officers so released can be 
absorbed into the force to offset natural attrition » 

9« Personnel Records : A considerable saving in mzn hours now 

spent in posting various personnel records 
can be made by consolidating and systematizing these records,. 
Our recommendations follow. 

a. Watch Report t Redesign to one page for Acco binding at 
top and si^snatures at bottom. Use symbols 
to indicate the watch and the standard details; use foot- 
notes (entered on back) to indicate special details <, Two 
columns can then be provided for names. Prepare in dup- 
licate; keep one copy (bound) in originating unit for 
reference . 

bo Station Detail-. Book and Discontinue. Information 
Station Time Book: included in Watch Report. 

Design a new report to provide maragement«= 
type information to senior officers. This 
repoxii should shows (l) by unit, man days worked (regular) , 
man days worked (overtime ), and man days absent ^ (2) for 
the department^ percentage sick„ percentage on vacation* 
number of hires 9 and number of terminations » 



30 



K)lk;e 



^° Baily Recap : Discontinue ) 

Weekly Sick Report ; Discontinue) Important data is 

included in new 
Monthly Recap. 

e. Overtirae cards ? Coiribine these three cards into one card. 

x*ith spaces to check whether time off or 
pay is desired. 

f. Extra Duty Ledger Card ; Discontinue. This is a 

duplication of records kept by 
the Controller, and the information is furnished by his 
office. 

g. Kardex R eference Card ; ) 
Time O ff Ledger Card ; ) 

Line5e::~ hoto Reference L ist; } Combine onto one Kardex 

card. When card is filled, 
file in Personnel Jacket for reference. 

h. Residence Certification ; Discontinue. This twice-yearly 

certification of residence 
location is not required cf other city employees and in- 
volves many man-hour3 of unproductive paper work. 



D. RECOMMENDATIONS 
(Charter Changes Required) 

1. Hiring : The following recommendations relative to hiring are 

in addition to those already made which do not involve 
charter changes: 

a. Lower the maximum age for applicants for police 
positions to 29 years. This will have the following 
advantages. 

(1) Increase the average vigor of recruits i 

(2) Increase the years of useful service. 

(3) Permit any man to retire at 55 years of 
age with at least 25 years of service. 

b. Provide that applicants need only be residents of the 
United States, and need not be residents of California. 

c. Eliminate the preparation of a separate eligibility list 
for non-resident3 of California, so that appointment will 
be based entirely on relative merit and not on residence. 



31 



POL3DK5 



Promotion : As mentioned in the Findings Section, it is 

apparent that in many cases the "best men do not 
get promoted. An improved system for promotion is considered 
of paramount importance in order to: 

a. Assure the highest possible caliher of leadership and 
administration for the department. 

b. Increase the incentive for capable young men to enter 
police careers, and thus permit raising the standard for 
hiring. 

The broad problem of promotion to management positions has 
been studied by the Task Force on Wage and Salary Adminis- 
tration, and their report recommends the establishment of a 
Management Development Committee. This proposal would elimi- 
nate promotional examinations for management-level jobs. 
Pending the adoption and implementation of this proposal on a 
city-wide basis, the following reccrsmendation is made as an 
interim measure. 

It is recommended that the promotion system be revised to pro- 
vide for weighting of three factors to determine standing on 
the eligibility list: 

(1) Written examination — Weight 60$ 

(2) Rating (average of all Rating 

Scores in present grade) -- Weight 30$ 

(3) Seniority — 10$ maximum 

It is also recommended that eligibility to take a promoti 
examination be restricted to men whose average of all Rating 
Scores, in present grade, is £0 or above. In effect, this 
limits the eligibility to the top one-third of the men in thr-i 
grade as determined by their ratings (since the scores are 
distributed evenly from 100 down to 70 ). 

At present the written examinations often include questions 
which are very theoretical in nature and sometimes ambiguous 
in context* It is recommended that these examinations be 
prepared by the Civil Service Commission in consultation with 
a Board of three police captains appointed by the Chief of 
Police, in order to better assure a meaningful test of km 
edge of pertinent police matters. 



32 



3« 2££?;: 

distinct charac 

of handling the promotion of men 

characteristics are* 

a. By the nature of investigative work, g.usliflcatior 
an individual to be an inspector and the caliber of 
his work are not susceptible to written teats or 
objective measurements c, 

bo Because of the lack of objective criteria of perform*, 
of individual inspectors* optimum effectiveness of the 
bureau can be obtained only if the Chief of Police has 
considerable latitude in effecting trantfera to and f 
this bureau;, aad promotions and demotions within it, 

Cn There is al*/ays the danger of outside pressures aiaec 
diverting investigation away from spect of crin 
activity,, While the rest of the police department a] 
may suf i such pressures, the danger is partici 3 
serious in the investigative branch „ Every effort mv. 
made to assure that transfers out of this bureau are not 
made as a result of such pressures o 

Recommendations on the handling of transfers to fill vace; 
in any bureau aire included in another section of this repo 
With particular reference to the Bureau of Inspectors , it 
recommended that the following steps be taken? 

(!) Establish tvo grades of inspector in lieu ox" 
present single grade* as fo3JLowss 

Grade Present Salary Prop oaecl Salary 

Inspector $693 Same as Sergeant ($677) 

*r Inspector — • 20$ above Iktrolman ($ r ( . 

[2) Retain the present Charter provisions regarding 
asKt:. >f the Chief to appoint assistant 
inspectors 

(3) Rcovide that the Chief of Jblice, on ths reeom~ 
mendaticn of the Chief of Inspectors* mayg 

(a) Appoint Assistant Inspectors and Inspectors 

to the grades of Inspector and Senior 
actor ( within established numerical 
s)» 
(b) Demote a Senior Inspector to Inspector if his 
laat two rating scores were in the bottorr. 
of men In his gradeo 






(e) Transfer- aa Inspector or Senior Inspector 
from the bureau, if hia last four rating 
scores were In the bottom 10$ of men in 
his grade o 

Job Evaluation ; The report of the Wage and Salary Task Force 

includes a recommendation concerning job 
evaluation for management positions <> If this program is ap° 
plied to the police department, particular attention should be 
given to the appraisal of relative values of the top super- 
visory positions of the various bureaus and units. For 
example, an appraisal of the positions of district captain, 
taking into account the fact that the total assigned strength 
varies frcn 87 in on® district to 1^3 in another, probably 
would show that the position value varies from district to 
district o This will be especially pertinent if the number of 
districts is reduced, with a corresponding increase in the 
responsibilities of district csaptains- The provision of 
salary differentials, in such oases, to recognize the increased 
scope of the management jobs, would be sound organization and 
consistent with the current salary differentials between some 
of the heads of bureaus . 

Discipline ; It is reccemerded that the Chief of Police be 

authorised to punish any member of the department 
for any offense or violation of the rules and regulations of 
the department, as follows s By reprimand, or by fine or 
suspension not exceeding ten working days' salary for any 
offense o More serious penalties would be levied by the Com" 
mission within the limits now provided in the Charter<> 

It is recommended that standards of 
physical fitness be established for 
all members of the department, and that they be required to 
take an annual physical elimination to assure continued 
conformance to these standard?;. Officers who fail the examin- 
ation and are unable to correct the deficiencies noted wi1 
a prescribed length of time, should be released from the 
department » 

It is not supposed that memy officers currently in service 
would fail the examination! o:.*, if they failed $ be unable to 
cJsgFggn the deficiencies within a reasonable period. But 
before actually installing a system in which officers found 
physically unfit would be released, careful consideration, 
should be given to means for making adequate provision for 
them» The following measures 3hould be studied both individ° 
uaUy and in combination. 



3k 



a* A revision of the disability retirement system to 
include relating disability pay to percentage of 
disability^ as is done in the armed services « 

bo A canvass of positions throughout the city govern^ 
meat vhich can be filled by men no longer qualified 
for active police duty<> 



35 






IV 
OHGAHXZAIIOH 

Page 

A. RecoEmeniation 37 

B. CoEEiesrta on Organization. 3ne.rts 38 

C. District Stations ^3 



36 



The current org& - shows eleven supervisors of 

Bureaus and Units reporting directly to the Chief of Folice This 
"span of control" exceeds the bounds proved, desirable in business 
enterprises* the general practice in other police departaentSj, and the 
maximum (6 or 7) recommended in the textbook "l&inicipal Police 
Administration. " There is not enough time in the day to keep in touch 
vith and provide direction to so many people . 

There would appear to be at least as urgent reasons for limiting 
the span of control in the Police Department as in most businesses . 
The variety of activities of the Department is broad^ it operates 2k 
hours a day^ and the Chief has nany ceremonial assignments to take 
time in addition to administration of the department <= Delegating the 
daily operations of the Department to a limited number of individuals 
reporting directly to the Chief -would increase his Rapacity to plan,, 
evaluate and make major decisions. Apparently some steps have been 
taken in this direction vhlch have not yet been formalized xn the 
organization chart. Our suggestion is that a comprehensive approach 
be taken, as suggested in this review, to the entire department. 

In developing a sou f ^anizatioa, many factors must be 
considered.. The existing organizational structure reflects careful 
attention to many of these factors. However, at the operating le 
it appears that sufficient emphasis has not been given to the pit- 
falls of over-specialization., which .results in poor utilization of 
manpower. Als©^, in some cases it appears possible to effect catter 
co-ordination and integration of the effort of specialized un 
grouping certain units with . unctions under a cgshhou 
supervisor. The present organization suffers from excessive fragae 
tation into numerous specialized* independent units , Our recoaBaea 
tions below are aimed at correcting the weaknesses discussed,* 

A. BECCftfcJHStfFXOIS 

It is recommended that the organizational structure of 
Police Department be revised to accomplish the following; 

(1) Reduce the span of control of the Chief so that; no more than 7 
officers report directly to him> 

(2) Separate operating functions from service functions. 

(3) Consolidate details and units to reduce the number of 
echelon supervisors and facilitate co-ordination s 

of manpower to handle unever work loads. 

The attached chart suggests for consideration an organization 
structure that would illustrate the major principles stated in the 
recoamendation above without 00 abrupt or extreme e dej 
from the current plan, 






ORGANIZATION CHART 
SES OVER 



POLICE 

Bo COMMENTS OH SUGGESTED ORGANIZATION CHART 

1° lnYest3.3at.igjn Bureau 

It appears that better utilization of manpower could be effected 
by maJd.Bg it easier to assign vork in accordance with variations in 
the workload in the various specialized units o At the same time- it 
is recognised that the effectiveness of investigative vork depends in 
part upon the inspectors familiarity with criminal activities in a 
specialized field. To some extent, these two considerations - 
flexibility in assigning work and specialization - are conflicting. 
However, we believe that a reorganization along the following li 
would provide greater flexibility - and hence better manpower util 
tion - without sacrificing the benefits of specialization. The 
suggested groups combine activities which have certain characteristics 
in coEmon, and these groupings also have precedence in the organiza- 
tion of the police departments in other cities, 

a ° Division It Narcotics, Gambling, Prostitution, and V.iol£ 

^fliSCrXfilc oholi c Beverage Control, ) This group now ccnsprl 3es 
the Bureau of Special Services. We understand there may be 
special reasons for having the Narcotics Detail as a separ 
unit, but from an orgarizational standpoint it would be 
desirable to group these four details in one division, 

bo Divisional Homicide and General Works, Since these both 
involve crimes against the person, they appear to form a 
logical group, 

Co Divi sion 3 ; Burglary, Robbers'-, and. Pawnshop, Both burg? 
and. robbery are crimes against property, as distingui: 
from crimes against the person. Since stolen property 
frequently turns up in pawnshops, the work of these three 
details is closely related. 

fic Divi gigj ^ j* 1 Fraud, 

e ° Division g ; Auto. This is shown as a separate detail in 
accordance with what appears to be the usual practice. 
However, we suggest that consideration be given to eo 
it with Divisior. 6 (Juveniles and Missing Persons ), 1 
so many auto thefts and boosts are traceable to Juveniles. 

f , Division 6t Juveniles and Missing Persons. A large number 
of missing persons are juveniles, and thus the work of th 2 
details is often related. 

Consolidation of details as outlined above, with each division 
headed by a lieutenant, should facilitate co-ordination of work and 
the shifting of personnel from one type of work to another to suit 
variations in work lead. 



33 



POLICE 

2, Bureau of Adm inist rative ^.Service s 

Under a Deputy Chief, the proponed Bureau of Administrative 
Services -would include the several administrative and service-type 
units which now report independently to the Chief. The functions 
included in the divisions of this bureau would be as follows: 

a. Personne l Division. The scope of this division's responsi- 
bilities would remain essentially the same and would include 
the following functions: 

Recruiting 

Recruit Training 

In-Service Training 

Co-ordination of Transfers 

Assignment of Performance Rating Scores 

Personnel Records 

Police Academy, Range 5 Police Surgeon, Poliee Chaplains 

Specific recommendations on these activities are 
included in the Personnel section of this report . 

bo Criminal Informa t ion Division » This division would continue 
its present activities" (criminal records, statistics and 
communications) J would take over the Warrant Bureau and the 
Identification Files, as already planned} and in addition 
would ecibraee the Crime laboratories which now operate un< 
the Bureau of Inspectors o This latter change is recommended 
so that the Investigation Bureau can be freed, of service-type 
activities and can concentrate on its primary mission of 
investigation. 

In connection with the Central Records Section, it should be 
noted that there is a tendency in the various details of the 
Bureau of Inspectors to build their own files of records 
rather than to utilize the records in the Central Records 
Section* A similar tendency exists in units of all buslne 
enterprises and seldom is entirely eliminated*. From these 
separate files the Details develop what is called the M.O. 
(Modus Operandi.) of criminals in order to detect a pattern of 
operation. The I.B.M. equipment in the Central Records 
Section appears capable of providing such studies and correla- 
tions better than it can be done by consulting individual 
in a less complete file. 

A comprehensive study of this subject of full utilization of 
central files and data processing machines should result in 
greater effectiveness at lower cost^ as is done in indust 



59 



POLICE 

At present the Records Room operates about 10 hours a day. 
During the night various other members of the Department have 
access to the room as they may need recordB for their investi- 
gative work. This practice makes it impossible to charge the 
Director of the Criminal Information Division with responsi- 
bility for the integrity of the records; it increases the 
chances that the records may become misplaced in the files; 
and time is wasted in locating records by investigative 
personnel who are not familiar with the record system. We 
understand that the operation will be placed on a 2^-hour 
basis after moving to the new Hall of Justice. 

Co Public Relations . At present, activities of a public rela- 
tions natvre are carried out by various bureaus and units of 
the department., It is recommended that responsibility for 
thi3 function be centralised in one division to provide more 
co-ordinated, consistent and effective effort in this area. 

In this connection, it is pertinent to note that* by the 
nature of law enforcements the effectiveness - and cost - of 
maintaining order are largely dependent upon public attitudes. 
To the extent that the public supports a law, and correspond- 
ingly supports the agencies charged with its enforcement, the 
work of those agencies is simplified. Conversely, the less 
the general public sympathizes with a law, the greater the 
difficulty and expense of enforcing it. At the first extreme 
are laws sgainst murder - and public attitudes undoubtedly 
have a bearing on the high percentage of these crimes which 
are cleared by arrest. At the other extreme we might cite 
the laws ©gainst segregation, which are being so vigorously 
resisted in certain parts of the United States. 

It follows that it is desii'able to create greater public 
understanding of, and support, for, the laws which -the police 
are called, upon to enforce, and for the activities of the 
police dejartment in carrying out their mission. Therefore 
we believe that the public relations function should be 
recognizee, as an important and integral part of all law 
enforcement activities. 

do General Services Division. This division embraces the present 
activities of the Administrative Bureau, with the addition of 
Accounting and Purchasing functions. Thus there is a logical 
grouping of service-type activities* mo3t of which service the 
department as a whole. 



hO 



POUCE 

3° ^3eay_<& _aM Evaluatio n Division 

In any organization - business or governmental - there is always 
the need for somaoie - or scans group - to review, analyze, and evalu- 
ate the operations of the organization; and to do research into 
better means, bettar methods, better equipment, and better administra- 
tion. At the same time, the people charged with line responsibility 
for the conduct of operations are usually too busy "getting out the 
wash" to be able to give sufficient attention to the work of analysis 
and evaluation. Also, this type of work requires a different set of 
skills and knowledge than does the work of the line supervisor. For 
these reasons it is recommended that s Research and Evaluation 
Division be set up„ reporting directly to the Chief , whose mission 
would be to promota the operating efficiency and effectiveness of all 
activities of the department. 

Administration of a police department is clearly a difficult 
assignment. The dapartment operates en a 2U-hour basis every day in 
the year. The amount of crime fluctuates and so does the distribution 
by types of crime. Changing transportation and traffic patterns cause 
changing problems in traffic enforcement and congestion control » 
Visits by dignitaries requiring special security, business and 
political conventions, sporting and other events all complicate the 
task of the Department and the deployment of personnel to meet the 
shifting conditions and workloads * All these factors intensify the 
need for analysis and evaluation in. all aspects of police administra- 
tion. 

The difficulty of this type of analytical work requires personnel 
with an unusually high degree of imagination and the ability to 
analyze complex problems. This staff should include personnel who 
have such qualities of mind plus education in such subjects as 
criminology j, industrial engineering, cost accounting, mathematical 
"Cpsearch" techniques, and the like. They need not be police officers, 
although some police officers should work with them. Officers with a 
degree in criminology would be particularly valuable in this type of 
work. 

The operations of the Analysis and Evaluation Division would 
embrace the following functions: 

a. Operatiocs Analysis and Evaluation 

1. Analysis of district station operations. 

2. Analysis of crime statistics, including current crime 
rates, trends, changing patterns, and evaluation of the 
effectiveness of law enforcement. 

3« Analysis of traffic data, such as is now being carried 
on in the Traffie Bureau, and evaluation of results of 
traffic enforcement efforts. 



Ill 



POLICE 



ho Analysis of motor equipment usage , and development of 
plans for an automobile pool to assure maximum feasible 
utilisation of automotive equipment <. 

5. Development of "tools" to assist unit managers in the 
supervision and deployment of personnel., and to improve 
the methods of transmitting information both up and down 
the chain of eoaanand. Such "tools" might include 
improved control reports to unit supervisors, and improved 
means for cacimunicating information to and from the man 
on the beat regarding current situations or problems » In 
this jiame general area, it is suggested that an evalua- 
tion be made of other supervisory tools., such as visits 
by senior officers to units reporting to them, and the 
use o::' periodic conferences with subordinate supervisors., 

60 Development of better utilization of the capabilities of 
the Records Section throughout the entire department, 

b<, Manpower :?lanning and Control 

1. Analysis of the use of civilian personnel, development of 
a plajined program for the replacement of police officers 
with civilians o 

2« Evaluation of overtime practices, and development of 
improved methods for control3.ing manpower* 

3» Performing organizational studies to determine the best 
organizational structure and the manpower requirements of 
the various organizational units. 

Co Equipment and Methods Research 

lo Evaluation of alternative systems and equipment for the 
installation of a dictation system for the departesEt . 

2, Analysing possible uses of data processing for informa- 
tion stored by the Intelligence Unit,, for inventory 
control, and for analysis? of vehicle utilization* 

3« Development of improved office procedures to reduce paper 
work* 

k, Exercise of :?orms control., as now done oy the Planning 
and Research Divi3iono 

5o Research in the field of automotive, communications., and 
ether equipment of interest to the department, to the end 
that the most economical and effective equipment is 
utilized. 



Up 



POLICE 

do Budget Review and Evaluation 

1. Review and analysis of budget requests. 

2. Evaluation of alternative means of accomplishing objec- 
tives at lesser cost. 

ko Traffic Bureau 

The Traffic Bureau has developed a new plan of organization^ and 
Intends to make this effective after moving to the new Hall of Justice . 
This plan is manifestly the result of careful study, and reflects a 
thorough analysis of operating requirements . We believe it could be 
improved by reduei.ig the span of control of the Deputy Chief (Traffic) 
as regards the staff units . As now planned, there would be 6 staff 
units, each reporting directly to the head of the Bureau. It is 
recommended that all staff activities be grouped together under one 
officer reporting to the Deputy Chief (Traffic). This is in line with 
our other recommendations aimed at freeing the senior officers from 
excessive administ ration duties. 

C. DISTRICT STATIOHS 

1. General 

San Francis eo currently has nine district police stations. One 
of these is in the Hall of Justice and the others are in separate 
buildings in various locations throughout the city<> Each station is 
run by a Captain arid lias its own headquarters administration staff. 

The Task Force is impressed by the fact that San Francisco 
departs so far from the practice of other major West Coast cities with 
respect to district stations. San Francisco has a district station 
for each k«6 square miles of area, compared with an average of 52 
square miles for L^ Angeles, San Diego, Long Beach, Oakland and 
Seattle. Populati'^n per district station in San Francisco is only 
one-third the average for those cities. Stated another way, in these 
other cities a station covers ten times the area and three times the 
population. The following t able gives comparative data for We3t Coast 
cities. 



J Population: Area Sq.: ^5~Popul?,tioh~Per; 
City . 1000's : Miles sNo. : Dist, 1000' s : Dist. Sq. Mi, 



San Diego 5^7 2 '40.0 3 182 80.0 

Seattle 552 83.8 3 l8h 27. 9 

Long Beach 32lj- 2*5.9 1 32^ 45*9 

Portland 371 71.5 3 12^ 23 <>S 

Los Angeles 2,448 457.0 14 175 32.6 

San Francisco 7U3 41.9 9 83 4.6 

Oakland 361 72.0 1 361 72.0 



43 






Such striking departure f rosa general practice would appear to 
require rather clearly demonstrable benefits in justification. This 
is particularly so because it seems clear that the district stations 
are costly in terms of both capital in installations and expenses in 
operation. The question is timely at present because the Police 
Department will soon transfer its headquarters to the new Hall of 
Justice, and has uader consideration the relocation of two district 
headquarters Involving construction of two new buildings. 

The issue seeas to us not to be whether there should be to 
district stations, but rather why some reduction in the number of 
stations should nob be made. If, for instance, the district stations 
were reduced frcci nine to four, San Francisco will still have a 
station for each 10 square irdles of area compared with 52 square miles 
for the major West Coast cities, and the population served per station 
would still be below the average for those cities. 

It is also of interest to note that Chicago's new police superin- 
tendent, 0. W. Wilson, is planning a reduction in the number of 
districts from 38 to 21. When this has been effected, Chicago's 
districts will average 10. 7 square miles in area, with an average 
population of 166,000 per district. 

Time was not sufficient for the Task Force to make an exhaustive 
analysis of all the details involved in station reduction. The major 
points, however, were studied and the evidence in favor of reduction 
appears to predominate heavily over the objections against reduction. 
The benefits and objections are as follows: 

2 . Benefits from Reducing Fu mber of Stations 

a<> Cost Red uction. The assignment of personnel to district 
stations as of March 1, 1961, was as follows? 

Average Per Annual Cost 
Tota l Station Per Man 

Captains 9 1.00 $ 13, 950 )Ineludes 

Lieutenants 29 3.22 11,190 Jsalary plus 

Sergeants 1»*8 16.Vj- 10,155 )25# benefits 

Patrolmen 752 83.55 8,9^0 ) 

Totals 936 10^. 

It is understood that a minimum of two men per watch (the 
station keeper and Lis assistant) are required for inside 
duty at each station. To pro/ide seven-day coverage, this 
requires an average of 8.U men. The cost of providing this 
coverage (assuming that five of these men are sergeants) 
amounts to $8l,0C0 per year. In addition, it should be 
possible to effect some reduction in the cost of supervision 
in district stations. Estimating this reduction conserva- 
tively at one captain and one lieutenant per station closed, 



hk 



POIiCE 



it appears that a total of $106^.000 in personnel costs can be 
saved for each station eliminated . 

In addition to the above personnel cost, the cost of 3and and 
building must also be considered. The proposed new Central 
Station involves an outlay of $118,000 for land and $£130,000 
for building - a total of $3^8,000. The annual cost of this 
installation, including bond interest, maintenance anc. 
depreciation, and less of taxes will amount to about <t>27,000 
per year. 

The valuation of land and buildings for the eight existing 
stations (excluding Central Station, located in the Ee.ll of 
Justice) amounts to a total of $1,262,000, or an average of 
$158,000 per station. The aunval cost, including items 
mentioned above, would average about $12,000 per year per 
station. 

Based on the above, the average total cost of operating 
existing district stations amounts to about $118,000 per year 
per station. This is the equivalent of the annual salaries 
of 13 patrolmen. 

Deployment of Person nel. Fluctuations in manpower available 
and in manpower requirements within a district are an ever- 
present problem. tfenpower available to a district captain 
varies with compensatory time off, vacations,, sickness, and 
details to other districts and to Operation S„ M&npcifer 
requirements vary with athletic events, parades, need for 
schools crossing guards, and other special events or situations. 
The fewer men a district captain has under him, the less 
flexibility he ha3 to meet fluctuating requirements. 
Conversely, the larger his district sjid the more men he has, 
the greater his flexibility and the more opportunity lie has to 
utilize his available manpower most effectively in meoting 
current needs. If the number of districts were reduced, this 
problem would be simplified accordingly, and mors effective 
use could be made of the men available. 

At present, it frequently happens that sufficient patrolmen 
are not available to cover all the beats in a district. For 
example, in one instance noted there were ten men available 
to cover 2h beats on one watch. A3 a result, eight beats were 
left completely uncovered, and twelve of the remaining beats 
were covered by six men* If this district captain had a 
larger district and correspondingly More men, he would have 
greater freedom of choice in assigning men and would have a 
better opportunity of assuring that the beats most in need of 
coverage vould receive it. 



5 






Co Supervision and Co-ordination . The Supervising Captain now 
has to supervise and co-ordinate the activities of niJie 
districts^ and also is responsible for the city prison.. By 
reducing the number of districts, his span of control would 
be reduced, and consequently he could more effectively super- 
vise and co-ordinate the activities of the patrol branch. 

Effective direction and co~ ordination of patrol activities is 
also enhanced by knowledge of criminal activities. S: nee 
criminals are no respecters of district boundaries,, it happens 
that a criminal who has developed a pattern of activity in one 
district e onetimes shifts his operations to another district =. 
This means that the background information acquired by the 
officers in one district is no longer useful in apprehending 
the criminal. The greater the number of districts, the 
greater this problem becomes. 

3° Objections 

a. Loss of Pe trol Time c One factor frequently mentioned in 
discussions regarding district stations i3 the loss o:f patrol 
time if the area of a district is increased, caused by the 
additional travel required to and from the station. .\n 
accurate estimate of the actual loss can be made only by 
comparing an existing district with a proposed 3.arger 
district. However, the order of magnitude of this loss can be 
approximated by considering a hypothetical case. 

The average station has about 75 men assigned to patrol 
duties. If we assutae that tha number of stations is :.-edueed 
from nine to four by closing five stations, the number:* of men 
whose travel time would be increased would be 5 x 75 '■'- 375 <= 
With these men operating out of four stations, it is estimated 
that, on the average, they would travel an additional two 
miles each way, or four miles round trip. At an assuned speed 
of 20 mph, the total lost time would amount to 375 x h/20 - 75 
hours per day as a result of closing five stations. f .?his is 
an average of 15 hours per day per station, or the eq^iivalent 
of losing two men per station on patrol. 

b. Increased Station Workload. If the area served by a district 
station is enlarged, there will be some increase in "he work- 
load within the station. However, this increase probably 
could be bandied without additional inside personnel by the 
following? 

1. The installation of a dictation system for dictating 
reports and memoranda, as recommended elsewhere in this 
report, may savn as much as two hours per watch for sta- 
tion personnel. 



k6 



POLICE 

2. Considerable duplication and lost motion in recordkeeping 
can be eliminated by mking a detailed survey of all sta- 
tion recordkeepijig end installing improved systems and 
procedures, 

Co Convenie nce to Publico It has been ui"ged that the district 
stations are a convenience because members of the public can 
register complaints against violators of the lav by appearing 
at a station in their locality. The recoi-ds indicate that 
this occurs in only a very small percentage of the off enses 
reported. Even though the public comes in to district sta- 
tions more often than the records indicate, the extra travel 
time to the Hall of Justice would hardly be consequential, and 
if the stations were merely reduced to four it would bs 
insignificant. 

Lost prope::ty (mostly bicycles) present a problem. Fire 
stations^, however, might be used as temporary depots for both 
property and children. Since there are ^8 fire stations, this 
would resuT-t in far .jreater convenience to the public. 

d ° Local Knew! .edge. It has been said that personnel in tae 

district stations become familiar with the area and th3 area 
people and that this increases their efficiency in law enforce- 
ment. It is difficult to see why this situation would be 
altered by closing a station. The personnel assigned to 
covering a district ;ould be patrolling the same area as 
before. The difference would seem to be that they would 
assemble to go on duty at a different place. 

e. Personne l I Trobleaus . Another objection voiced by the depart- 
ment to a reduction in the number of stations is the problem 
of reassigning personnel with its attendant effect on morale, 
both of those in the station closed and of those in the 
remaining ytatioas whose responsibilities would be enlarged. 
We believe that this problem can be minimized; 

1. It is thought that reductions in police personnel made 
possible through reduction in stations would be accomp- 
lished progressively, by not replacing officers as they 
retire, Consequently some of the supervisory personnel 
released could bs reassigned to adjacent districts to 
help in administering the larger district during the 
"shalsing-down" period. 

2. The increased flexibility in deployment of psrsoncel 
mentioned earlier would enable the supervisors to pro- 
vide more effective coverage (fewer beats uncovered, 
fewer patrol cars with one officer, etc.) and thus tend 
to reduce anxieties and produce the satlsfaebion cf a 
Job well done. 



hj 



POLICE 



3« She increased responsibility of the captains in the 

enlarged districts should be recognized and appropriately 
rewarded. This subject is also mentioned under "Job 
Evaluation" in the Fersonnel Section of this report. 

D, SUMMARY AHP RECOtMSKBATICS 

As pointed out, each station eliminated means a gross saving of 
about $118, COO per year. If two men are added on patrol to offset the 
loas of patrol tim-s, the net saving becomes $100,000 annually per sta- 
tion and it appears that this saving could be made at no reduction in 
patrol coverage o 

Our study of Ustrict stations proved to our satisfaction that on 
both an organisati ^nal and a cost basis, a reduction in the number of 
district stations .jould produce significant benefits. It is also our 
opinion that some "eduction in number,, probably to four stations, 
could be effected without loss of police protection. 

The Police Department, however^, feels that police protection 
would suffer from reduction. It seems that the objections raised on 
this po£nt can be eliminated through alternative methods which would 
still permit substantial net economies. But the time limit or out.* 
study did not permit it to proceed to the point where we feel a 
categorical reccaaandation for reduction should be made contrary to 
the views of the professional administration. 

Therefore, it is recomaisnded thati 

1. A comprehensive stuiy in depth be instituted immediately r 
covering all factors which are geraene to the question of 
the oijtim-tia number of police districts for San Francisco. 
The report of this study should inclrde an analysis cf 
several alternatives i.s regards the number of districts. 

2. This study should be conducted by a team of individuals 
with an objective approach and representing balanced 
viewpoints. 

3. No new stations ba constructed until this report has been 
completed and a policy adopted on the number of police 
districts. 



U8 






A 

REPORT 

WITH RECOMMENDATIONS 

CONCERNING THE ACTIVITIES 

OF ORGANIZATIONAL UNITS 

WIDER THE 

CHiEP ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 

OF THE CITY AND COUNT! 

OF SAN FRANCISCO 



BI THE 
CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 
TASK FORCE CF TH* MAJORS S COMMITTEE 
FOR MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT 



May 1961 



LETTER OF SUB: 



Hr, ilarshail G» Mustain, Projeci, Director 
Mayor's Committee for Municipal Management 
San Francisco, California 

Dear Mr. Mustain: 

The Chief Administrative Officer Task Force has completed an escfcensive six 
month study of twenty-four organisational units functioning under the Chlsf 
Administrative Officer. Ue believe the adoption of the recommendations con- 
tained in the attached report will effect substantial savings and consider- 
able improvement in operations a 

Our conclusions, leading to these recommendations, were formulated after 
analysing the findings from our review of each unit. The salient points 
covered are as follows: 

a. Analyses of the unit's organization and management, 

b. Evaluation of the methods, procedures, records, 

services, workload and other related operational 

functions. 
Co Analyses of manpower requirements in major areas, 
do Evaluation of expanse necessary to operate the unit, 
e. Analysis of the appropriateness of fees collected 

or that should be collected as applicable. 
f o Evaluation of the relationship existing with other 

governmental units. 

In the course of our work we visited government facilities in adjacent 
counties; studied Grand Jury reports and annual reports of various depart- 
ments; conducted research on the writings of outstanding authorities in 
government as well as surveys made hy civic groups, professional consult- 
ants and others; and consulted with experts in industry* Throughout, our 
judgment has been influenced hy business practices employed by outstand- 
ing firms and the experience of the members of the task force in their 
own firms. 

It has been our practice to hold a closing review, with the management 
levels directly responsible for the organizational unit surveyed, to 
discuss our proposed recommendations and to assure a common understand- 
ing of the findings and suggestions* Moreover, this practice permitted 
brief treatment of sueh items in the report*, 

The cooperation of all levels of msnsgessnt and of the individual employees 
interviewed, from the origin of the study through to the final closing re- 
view, was most gratifying. This cooperative atmosphere was of genuine 
assistance to the survey team and personally appreciated by the individual 
members „ 

We believe this report to be both objective and practical , 

K. B. Martin 
Chairman 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



I Introduction and Subb ^ 

32 D©partn>ant of Public Wor " 

III Department of Public Hea $0 

IV Director of Finance and ftecords 10? 

V Miscellaneous Units:- 121 

Heal Estate Department 
Sealer c 

County Agrieultural CoirariLssioi 
Department of Electricity 
Coroner's Office 

VI Organisation of the office of Chief Admini strati to Office 130 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 



INDEX OF EXHIBITS 



Title 



Present Organisation 
Director, Public Works 



Proposed Reorganization of the Engineering 
Functions of the City and County of San 
Francisco "Major Divisions" l& 

"Division of Specialty Engineering" \\9 

"Division of Engineering Services" 1*9 



"Special Projects and Architectural Services 

"Divisions" and Management Services b& 



Present Organisation - Medieal Bscords Department 
San Francisco General Hospital 7k 



Proposed Organization - J&dical Itecords Department 
San Francisco General Hospital 7k 



Present Organisation 
Director, Finance and Records 107 



Present Organization of 
Chief Administrative Office I3J4 



Proposed Organization of 
Chief Administrative Office 
Within Present Charter Provisions 13b 



OBUCTIGM AND SW&M 






INTRODUCTION ADD SUMMAEX 



INTRODUCTION 



The Chief Administrative Officer Task Force was charged with the responsibility 
of surveying almost all organisational units, with the exception of the Pur- 
chasing Department, whieh function under the direction of the Chief Administra- 
tive Officer and surveying the relationship of each of these unite to other 
governmental units of the City and County of San Francisco. Factors surveyed 
have included unit management, organization structure, operating methods and 
procedures, services rendered, workloads, manpower utilization, records, fee 
income and all categories of expenditure. 

Those recommendations ^'hich would require changes in the Charter of the City 
and County of San Francisco have been segregated in this report. As a result f 
all remaining recommendations contained herein are capable of lapleiBentati 
within the frsmswork of the Charter a 

Some of our comments and suggestions are not original, having been observed 
by previous survey groups during the past decade. Some of the recoirsfianda- 
tions had been earlier developed by members of the management group of the 
City and County of San Francisco, but for one reason or another;' iced 
into effect. 

In several cases, our observations clearly indicate the potential for 
proved efficiency *— but the time and resources available to us z&do it 
quite unrealistic to propose a definitive course of action in the absence 
of additional substantiation. In these instances we have highlighted •£•£ 
subject end recoisnK-nd that additional study in depth be made to determine 
appropriate future action, if any. 

We cannot over-emphesise the fact that, w' 

tions document, in a conservative manner, measurable savings, there are 
many more potential savings of major magnitude which, because they are 
basically intangible or non-iasasurable at this particular tome, have not 
been estimated and totaled here.* 

In the interest of brevity, the recommends tions contained in the follow- 
ing reports are not prefaced by lengthy written material pertinent to the 
observations , findings, comments and conclusions,. However, the feasibility 
of these recommendations has been thoroughly verified or tested, ei 
while on the survey or on the basis of previous experience with similar 
or related activities . 



*We believe that these unmeasured potential savings together with the 
savings possibilities inherent in our recommendation for reorganisation 
mora than offset anvj increased costs arising out of our proposals for 
new ©quipnant, facilities, manpower., etc. 






The office of the Chief Administrative Officer, established in 1932 to 
assist the Mayor in the adjiLnistration and management cf the City and 
County of San Francisco, has proven to be a valuable function during 
the past thirty years. Today this office, in supervising 1/3 of the 
employees falling within the Mayor's reponaibility, is actually in 
charge of 2$% of the total employees of San Francisco. 

Since its inception employment within •Ms Chief Administrative Officer 
group as increased 83$ to over 5,000 personnel, labile annual budgeted ex- 
penditures over the same period have gone up 313$ to over $37 million for 
the fiscal year ending June 30? 1961. To cope with this increasing scops 
and magnitude of responsibilities, both now and in the future, there is 
included, as a separate psrt (Section VI), a recommended reorganisation 
of this group, which can be accomplished within the current limitation of 
the Charter of the City and County of San Francisco . 

Total tangible and measurable annual savings possible t o the C ity and 
County of San Francisco — » calculated in a conservative manner ■— that 
can be realized from the enclosed recommendations amount to over $5,500,000, 
Approximately &5 3 000,000 can be realized without charter revision. 

Total so-ealted revenue possibilities turned up on this survey — that is, 
the redirection of the cost of service from the general taxpayer to the 
user or benefactor of the service — * amount to approximately &U, 000, 000. 

Major items of savings possibilities in this report include the following: 

1. The shifting of tubercular and geriatric patients among San 
Franci3eo General Hospital, Lagunda Honda Home and Hassler 
Health Home coupled with segregating the General Hospital, 
wards into "acute" and ,! geriatric" would effect an annual 
saving of at least $2,000,000. 

2. A major substitution of mechanical street cleaning equipment 
for manual labor, coupled with control of vehicle street park" 
ing and around-the-clock work scheduling, would result in an 
annual saving of at least 0850,000. 

3. A reorganization of all engineering activities in the City 
and County government would result in on annual saving of 
at least $810, 000 . 

k» The realignment of the duties and responsibilities of 
hospital institutional workez's would maximise use of 
manpower, permit a reduction in the number of personnel 
required and result in an annual saving of at least 
&61i0,000 a 






5>. The eliminati Pping infection activities aisicng 
the Bureau of Building Inspsction, the Fire Departiaent and 
the Bepartsj&nt of Public Health would result in sn annual 
saving of at least £>302 ? G00o 

6, A greater city-wide concentration on preventive maintenance 
activities concerning buildings and facilities would result 
in savings of several millions of dollars — longer f aeility 
life will greatly postpone -the large eosts of eventual r-3~ 
placements by the taxpayers. The aasount of these savings 
is not included in the above totals,, 

It should b© pointed out that in all savings calculations involving personnel 
costs, a factor of 2$% has been added to cover the Various Categories of 
fringe benefits paid for by the City and County of Son Francisco. 



K a D. Martin, 
Chairman 

Will jam L„ Davidson 
Robert C c Goals 
Thomas I» McCain 
Martin Steinbeck 
Hswraond L. Wallace 



DEPAH 



II 

EEPAgRWI OF PUBLIC WORKS 

Pago 

A. Organisation Chart Next 

B 4 General Office 9 

C» Bureau of Accounts 22 

D. Central Perrcit Bureau 

E. Bureau of Building Inspection 1? 

F. Bureau of Architecture 
G» Bureau of Engineering 

H* Bureau of Street Repair 29 

Io Bureau of Street Cleaning & Planting 31 

J, Bureau of Sewer ifepair & Sewage Treatment 3h 

Ko Bureau of Building Repair 39 

L. Becomraendations Invo3.ving Charter Changes h& 




CO LU 

ac — 




>Z% 




: — Qd :c O z — o 



O u- O : 








X a. -4 o * 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



GFJIEPAL__OFFICS 

Findings 

This General Office serves as the administrative arm of 
the Department of Public Works which includes the t ollcwing Bure 
Engineering — Building Inspection — Architecture — Accounts — 
Central Permit — Street Repair — Sewer Repair and Sewage Treatment 
— Building Repair — Street Cleaning. The activities of each of 
these Bureau;; are covered in other sections of this report „ 

The Department arid its staff of 1.^95 persons are under 
the general management of the Director,, an Assistant Director - 
Maintenance and Operations Division - and an Assistant Director - 
Administrative Division* This administrative group exercises full 
control over the policies and actions of the various burea 

The operation of the Department of Public Works is 
seriously handicapped because several of the Bureaus are housed 
separate locations with inadequate space and facilities. Every 
effort should be made to consolidate In one location all operations 
of the Department o 

Greater mechanisation of accounting and other procedures 
would materially assist in improving operations. In addition, a 
continuing study of practices employed by business and industry may 
prove helpful, in making similar applications to the activities of 
the Department* 

All similar activities, now performed by other departments^ 
should be transferred to the Department of Public Works in order to 
provide an efficient centralised operation. 

^cogaTgndatignB 

lo Sy^SMSE 

An all-purpose abMnistration-type building (appro 
100,000 eq. ft.) should b© constructed at the Arsgr St: 
location to house all Public Works personnel now Iocs 
in separata locations. 

This building could include space for the Department of 
Electricity's adMnistratLvs staff shops constructed accord- 
ing to previous recommendations at the same location* The 
Fifteenth and Harrison Street activity could be transferred 
to the Army Street location and if necessary, some of the 
city property near Jerrold Street could be utilized for 
storage of supplies and trucks. 



CHIEF AttHHISTRATITE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



Such a plan would: 



(a) Release rented or leased quarters, reducing rental costs. 

(b) Allow sale of Harrison Street property and its i*etum to 

tax rolls. 

(c) Reduce the scope of Civic Center Master Plan development 

with a resulting saving in construction costs as a more 
functional lower cost structure would be built at Army 
Street than at Civic Center. 

(d) Reduce travel time and provide efficient work quarters at 

considerably less cost* 

(e) Permit quantity purchasing at better discount rates as a 

result of consolidated and expanded storage facilities; 
and 

(f ) Provide better co-ordination and communications through 

consolidation of related functions. 

In the meantime-, a concerted effort should be made to consolidate all 
bureaus of the Public Works Department in common or contiguous 
quarters for the maximum utilisation of manpower. This has partic- 
ular reference to the Bureau s of Architecture., Engineering, Building 
Inspection, Central Permit, General Office, etc. The former 
Recreation and Park Departments engineering section should not be 
allowed to remain at the McLaren Lodge location. 

2. Plffiee, .Manuals 

An office manual and work performance standards dsould be developed. 
At the present time there is no systematic means of determining the 
fitness of an employee on a continuing basis. Wri&en and oral 
examination by the Civil Service Commission is the only means of 
determining fitness, ami then only upon entry. A guide should be 
developed to assist supervisors in dealing effectively with personnel 
problems o 

3. Inter-de partmental Commtimcations 

The present practice of each bureau or department is to follow 
vertical lines of communication -to the administrative bead of the 
respective bureau or department and then crossing over to the other 
bureau or department administrative head down to the comparable 
level in the bureau or department initiating the matter^ thus - 
curring excessive work. Return communications are handled in 
same manner. 

In order to expedite communications and in most cases afford better 
service, procedures should be established so that supervisory per- 
sonnel in different departments or bureaus can communicate horizon- 
tally on all routine operating matters. 



10 



CHIEF iUMDHSTfiATrVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC TORES 



h- Employee Replacement ( T emporar y ^ Bas is ) 

The present means of replacing employees on a temporary basis , who 
are absent due to sickness, jury duty, military leave, vacations, 
etc., is ineffective and unworkable with 'the result that tJio bureaus 
are working with a reduced staff and an impaired work program. In 
the interest of efficiency and expediency the bureau supervisory 
staff should, whenever possible, give greater advance considei-ation 
to these absences and the Civil Service Commission should simplify 
the procedures for procuring temporary employee replacements. 

5. Replacement of Personnel {Permanent Basis ) 

Provision should be made for prompt replacement of administrative 
and supervisory personnel in order that the work operations of a 
buraa; are not impaired. Under present conditions it is not unusual 
for a bureau to wait eight months to one year for a replacement » 
For example, the replacement for a retired employee should be 
selected from a qualified group well in advance of the employee^ 
retirement date, which is a matter of record. Lists of eligible 
applicants should be reviewed and updated as some of the eligible 
applicants are older than the incumbent. 

6, Pr oc e dis'e for Ha ndlin g Correspondence 

With regard to the preparation, signing, and processing of all 
correspondence, it is recommended that: 

(a) Where written instructions exist, they be reviewed; and 

(b) Where no written policy has been established, that action be 
taken to simplify present correspondence practices as follows: 

(1) Prepare and /or streamline written policies with respect 
to who may initiate, sign, and forward various types of 
correspondence, giving proper weight to letters i 
volving policy matters* 

(2) Define the various position levels authorized to sign 
letters for superiors, stating conditions and ioxis. 

(3) Permit greater- latitude for direct exchange of inter- 

and intra-departmeatal correspondence without unnecessary 
vertical processing. 

(a) Reduce the amount of vertical processing of inquiry type 
correspondence received from the public by eliminating 
all department heads not directly concerned with «ie 
subject matter. 



11 



CHIEF ADEEMISTRATIv'E 
DEPARTMEII? Or' FU3LIC WORKS 



(5) Reduce to a minimum and spell out the number of copies 
required for the various kinds of correspondence. 

(6) Promote and extend the use of handwritten, carbon copy 
type of inter- and intra-deparimental memoranda to 
reduce the number of typed ietters<> 



A reasonable number of supervisory staff meetings should be held each 
year at which the Bureau heads would inset with the Director and his 
administrative group for a discussion on general departmental mattersc 
These meetings would prove beneficial in keeping everyone informed 
on current activities* 

Indoctri n atio n Pg 

A pamphlet outlining policies, practices and general personnel regu- 
lations should be issued to new employees. 

Replacements 

A careful analysis should be 'made each tins a vacancy occu.rs to 
determine if replacement is actually needed * It appears that in the 
case of budgeted employees (*.-;here money is provided) there is a ten- 
dency toward automatic replacement. 



This group should be combined with Bureau of Accounts and located at 
Army Street as suggested above. A saving of at least one Senior 
Personnel Clerk and a greater utilisation of mechanical equipment- 
could be effected* (Estimated annual savings - $7*775») 



C. BUREAU OF ACCOUNTS 

The. Bureau of Accounts, with a staff of 3&, is responsible 
for control of payroll procedure, personnel records and field time- 
keeping for the Department of Public Wozks; purchase order 
requisitions? sub- storeroom and inventories; automotive expenditures 
and refunds accounts; state gas tax subventions and Bond Funds 
accounts; the cash revolving fund for the Department; the store 
volving fund; budget preparation and controlling accounts: central 
radio station; and the supplying of clerical service to all of the 
operating bureaus o 



12 



CHIEF AMimSTRATIVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



Hie Organization falls into two separate groups - the 
Public Works Yard Division and the City Hall Division, both under 
the direction of a Principal Accountant who divides his time between 
the two divisions. There is no assistant supervisor in the Organi- 
zation o 

All accounting operations should be performed at one 
central point, the Public Works Yard office at Army Street, and 
action should be taken to reorganize this bureau in line with the 
specific recommendations. 

Recorame rd at ions 

1. Consolidation 

Full use of accounting personnels with some reduction in staff 
possibles should be achieved by consolidating the staffs now at City 
Hall and at Army Street in one physical location, namely. Army Street. 

Further reduction in staff may occur if the accounting function is 
transferred to a centralized data processing center, at which time 
the feasibility of retaining the remaining accounting functions in 
the Department of Public Works should be considered, as against 
transferring them to the Controller's Department to eliminate 
duplication. If this were done, the Department of Public Works 
would then retain only the purely clerical and personnel functions 
of the present Bureau of Accounts. (Estimated annual savings - 

2» jfech ajuzafcion 

(a) First, fully mechanise all adaptable accounting procedures, the 
most important being payroll. Ike work dene by this tabulating 
unit should be programmed so that reporting and payroll pro- 
cessing can be more evenly handled throughout the month;, 
creating a stable work load. 

(b) Second, consolidate this tabulating unit with the Purchas. 
tabulating unit in the City Hall, which -would eliminate at 
least 2 employees and several pieces of I.B.M. equipment, with 
an estimated saving of $1,500 'P QV sionth. 

3. Petty Purchas e Orders — Cash Purchas es — Revolving Funds 

The present petty purchase limitation should be increased from $2$ 
to $100. The present cash purchase limitation should be raised from 
$15 to §25 per purchase* The amount of the revolving fund should be 
increased from $1,500 to #2,500 and Petty Cash Funds held by various 
bureaus should be increased from $200 to $300 . 

13 



CHIEF ADMEHISTRATIv'E OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



b. Payroll i Accounting 

Payroll, time-keeping, material and labor detail should be vested 
in foramen or designated crew members. This would eliminate 2 time- 
clerks and 2 autos. (See report on Bureau or Street Cleaning and 
Planting.) 

5. Bidding Practices 

Department bids should be figured on the same basis as outside 
contracts (except allowance for profit). For example, present system 
of cost analysis does not take into account the detailed cost of 
space, depreciation, light, heat, etc. 

6. Job Rotation 

A rotation system should be developed in order that employees can 
become familiar with more than one .lob, 



D. CENTRAL .PERMIT BUREAU 
Findings 

The Central Permit Bureau, with a staff of 10 persons, is 
responsible for the issuance of all permits under the Jurisdiction 
of the Department of Public Works. Applications for permits for the 
erection," alteration, demolition and moving of buildings am for 
other matters are received, routed to various units for p: 3g, 
and upon approval, this bureau issues the permits and collects the 
prescribed fees. " TMs bureau is the custodian of all public records 
relevant to permits issued by the Department of Public Works, and 
of all plans and specifications in conjunction with these permits. 

The bureau also handles the assignment of street addresses 
to all new buildings and the elimination of possible confusion re- 
sulting from improper existing numbers. Another important duty 
consists of rendering bills for all claims for damage to property 
under the jurisdiction of the Department of Public Works and for 
costs in excess of deposits in the installation of side sewers. 

The Central Permit Bureau operates under the general 
direction of the Assistant Director of Public Works - Administration, 
and is under the supervision of the Supervisor, Central Permit ^ 
Bureau. Although additions have been made to the types of permits 
issued by this bureau - now totalling 30 different types - it is 
not yet handling ail types of permits required in San Francisco and 
therefore is not truly a central clearing house for permits as its 
name implies. 

ia 



F AIMHGS?ft v .CSS. 

DPi.:'. OF PUBLIC WORKS 



A cumbersome office arrangement has tried the efficiency 
and patience of employees. This is primarily a clerical operation 
in a clearing house role, and improved efficiencies of operation 
are difficult to attain because of the large number of bureaus or 
departments that must be served and satisfied. Being a pure clerical 
service., funds for changes and improvements seem to have low priority, 

Rec omxaend ations 

1* Net? Quarters 

In new quarters., provisions should be made to partition the Senior 
Gierke and possibly others from the public counter. While this 
would cut back on the number of clerks available to serve the 
public, it would allow detailed work to be performed without inter- 
ruption, and permit those charged with planning and supervision to 
act in a more affective manner. 

2. Senior Clerk 

The Senior Clerk shoxild be relieved of cashier duties and allowed to 
operate as a full-fledged Senior Clerk, One position, Cashier C 5 
should be substituted for a current General Clerk position to handle 
the $1 -Trillion annual fee income. 

3. Cas hier Functions 

All cashier functions of the Bureau, including those performad per- 
taining to e?tectrical permits, should be handled by the abo-ce 
designated Cashier C. One of the General Clerks should be designated 
to act from time to time as alternate cashier - these occasions 
would cover vacations, sickness and days off, as well as plarr 
arrangement during lunch periods. 

1*. Annual Audit 

An annua l audit of the Bxireau^s financial transactions should be 
to verify the proper handling of funds in the City's best interest 
as well as protect those actually handling the funds. 

5° Permit Combination 

On new buildings there are currently six possible permits issued? 

(a) Building. 

(b) House Number. 

(c) Posting Notice* 

(d) Use of Street. 

(e) Sawer. 

(f ) Lowering of Curb. 

1$ 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



Three of these should be combined into one form covering the building 
permit, the house number and the posting notice. This should stim- 
ulate other ideas for elimination, combination and imp rove msnt of 
forms. 

6. Clerical Detail 

All of the clerical detail now handled by the Bureau Read, such as 
checking the Daily 'lerno of Permit Fees against the actual permits 
and the posting to daily receipts book, should be delegated to one 
of the Senior Clerks for handling by them or their subordinates. 

7o Permit Issuance 

In the interest of retaining Bureau control of permit issuance, as 
well as rendering better sendee to the public, a speed-up of the 
processing procedure should be established. (See Building Inspection 
report.) 

80 Microfilming; 

The practicability of microfilming should be investigated for all 
adaptable records looking toward better securitj'- control, i.e., 
having a basic file in case of disaster as well as control of records 
when being used by non-Bureau personnel. Purchase of new equipment 
such as Photostat Document Reader-Printer (Reeordax) is worthy of 
consideration . 

9. Filir 

The present system for filing permits, inspection reports and plans 
should be reviewed and revised. The suggestion to file and control 
by location has considerable merit and should be instituted as soon 
as possible. This file should be a complete history of the builc- 
and contain all official city documents including plumbing, electrical; 
health and fire divisions. In this manner, one file would contain 
all information. 

10. Fee Revision 

Hie Bureau Head should always be represented in any fee revision 
decision and have full responsibility for the revision of forms* 

11. Security 

Complete control of plan and permit files should be established to 
prevent tampering, and only certain employees should be authorized 
to have access to the files. 



16 



CHIEF ABMINI2 
DEPARTMENT Z WORKS 



12 <, Combining Vo rkin ^ Management 

Refer to Bureau of Building Inspection report re: combination working 

management , 



E. BUREAU OF BUI LUNG INS PEC TION 

Findings 

The Bureau of Building Inspection, with a staff of 85, re- 
views plans and inspects construction and installations involving 
structural, electrical, plumbing and mechanical work throughout the 
city for the purpose of ensuring compliance with City Ordinances 
and the State Housing Act. It studies and reports on legislation 
affecting buildings and structures and proposes new legislation as 
required. The Bureau assists as the enforcing agency for the City 
Planning Code and inspects and initiates action in connection with 
existing structures. 

The Bureau's increasingly heavy volume of work is difficult 
to rrocess with dispatch in inadequate quarters with insufficient 
supervisory personnel. Some enforcement duplications exist between 
the Bureau and other departments performing related work. 

The Bureau is also facet with safety conditions which em- 
phasize the need for increased regulation of building construction 
and building alteration t . The Re-development and Urban Renewal 
programs will greatly assist in ridding the City of undesirable 
buildings; however, homes and buildings in many districts and areas 
in San Francisco are deteriorating at an alarming rate - far in excess 
of any present rebuilding program. This 18 accentuated by the fact 
that middle-income families are moving cut of San Francisco and 
lower-income groups are moving in, with the tendency by owners to 
operate sub-standard structures (many containing "bootleg apartments") 
in order to cater to the increasing lower-income group. 

The Bureau is constantly rewriting the codes to strengthen 
the regulations covering new and old buildLngsj however, in al] 
every instance, especially in connection with retroactive rulings on 
old buildings, their proposals are met with protests.. The recent 
disastrous Thomas Hotel fire is a case in point, As a result of 
public demand, the Bureau accelerated its draft of a safety code for 
hotels, but the Board of Supervisors has delayed the matter f 
weeks due to protests. 

The policies of the Bureau should be given full suppor--- 
the Bureau of Building Inspection should be developed into a strong 
regulatory body which will serve as a significant protective force 
for the people of San Francisco. 

1? 



CHI] < STRATI VE OFFICER 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



Rec ommendations 

1. Adequate Quarters 

It is presently planned to move this bureau to hSO McAllister Street 
where sufficient space will be available. This move tri.ll eliminate 
an over-crowded condition, but a more satisfactory and long-range 
permanent solution would be the placement of all Bureau^ of the 
Departmsnt of Public Works in suitable buildings at the present 
Army Street location.. 

All persons handling permit operations should be within the same 
areai further, to expedite the work and reduce backlogs, all de- 
partments, particularly City Planning, having a part in permit work 
should assign the necessary personnel to the Building Inspection 
Office for the prompt and efficient processing of permit applications*, 
This arrangement would reduce current delays, which are sometimes 
extreme and simplify document and plan routing problems. 

2» Annual , Cede and .f^.^^slpns^^A^Q^w^U^Bvxldxn^ Materials 

These very important functions must be done on a full-time basis by 
an engineer of high classification. At present, the Assistant 
Superintendent and Superintendent of the Bureau endeavor to cover 
this work, along with their admini strati ve duties, and this creates 
an excessive workload. 

An additional qualified engineer position should be established as 
an assistant to the administrative gro':;p, to handle annual code 
changes, annual fee revisions and the necking and. approval of new 
building materials. 

3<> Overlappin^Inspection Serv ices 

Due to the complexity of the laws under trhich the bureau operates, 
there exists some overlap of jurisdictions which create enforcement 
duplication between Building Inspection, Fire and Public Health 
Departments. This suggests unnecessary duplication in checking plans, 
inspection during const rue ti on, and inspections of existing struct 
in total it may" involve duplication of some 30 required staff em- 
ployees. (Estimated annual savings - $3)2,000. } 

A study should be initiated to deterniinv the proper functions of each 
of the main groups end to propose a legally proper plan of operations 
which will provide better service to tha public and eliminate un- 
necessary duplication. 



18 



DLP ,F PUBLIC WOHKS 



Inspectors 

(a) Qualification Level 

It is essential to emplov hipth type inspectors, because of 
the responsibility and the independent judgement that must 
be exercised. The minimum q itions for this job should 

be increased ani salaries at ecordingly. 

(b) Hours m and Rotation 

Inspector hours should be 7:30 a.m to It: 30 p.m», and in 
order to allow more time for field work they should spend 
only one and one half hours in the office each day, from 
7:30 a.nio to 9:30 a«m. Inspectors should follow a regular 
system of checking with office by telephone while in the 
field <, A reasonably frequent district rotation schedule 
should apply to all inspectors,, (Estimated annual savings - 
368,760.) 

(c) Standardization of Inspector ...Service 



Practices and procedures (including actual ark) foil 

by inspectors should be reviewed looking toward placing the 
entire operation on a unifoirJi basis with strict adherence to 
established rules and regulations* 



Expense can be further of feet "by revising present fee sche 
and increasing low pressure fees from Oii.00 to a range of 
$6cOO»$8oOO and increasing the fee schedule for air tanks.. 

Additional inspection is needed to properly police possible 
violations in garages and industrial plants. Any increase in 
costs would be offset by fee3 colleetede 

Plumbing contractors should be required to obtain inspection 
reports before completion of job and operation of buildin 

(e) Supervisory Personnel 

(l) At present, the entire staff of eight plumbing inspectors 
are in the field at all times in order to properly cover 
their territory. The Chief Plumbing Insp I red 

to perform counter, telephone and other general of 
dirties, which ;:ould be performed by an employee of loi 
elassifi cation., thereby allowing more time to supervise 
the district inspectors. 



19 



*KS 



(2) A shortage of supervisory personnel exists in both 
the building inspection and electrical inspection 
divisions. In each division one supervisor is res- 
ponsible fa' more than 1^ men and in addition, 
handles administrative work and inspection of serious 
complaints or difficult problems. The addition of at 
least one grade of supervising personnel to these 
divisions should assist direct supervision and con- 
trol of the individual inspectors so that the Bureau 
could establish more uniforraitar in inspections. 

(f ) Electrical .Ii 

The advisability of having a registered professional electrical 
engineer supervise this division should be considered.. 

(g) Insp ection Distri cts 

A study should be made of the ise of census tracts for district 
assignments rather than dividing the city on a basis of the 
number of inspectors that are availab3,e for each particular 
category. Experience of other cities employing this census 
tract method indicates a desirable unifoimity in historical data 
and planning statistics* 

3>« Mechanical Division 

Ihe present code calls for the Bureau to inspect refrigeration 
conditioning and heating for installation and for proper maintenance. 
Budget requests for the employment of necessary personnel for 
purpose have been denied for severe! years* The fees set up a: 
tended to cover the personnel costs without use of tax rati 
and industry desires these inspections. These inspections should 
either be provided for or the code amsided so that such permits and 
inspections will not be required. 

It appears that this division could easily be consolidated with • 
Boiler Inspection Division as their staff consists of qualified 
mechanical engineers. It may be well to consider consolidation of 
the Boiler, Plumbing and Mechanical Divisions* 

6. Plan Checking 



(a) Staff 



Plan checking is a very important segmait of the Bureau's act- 
ivities. Only an experienced architect with engineering back- 
ground and estimating knowledge should be appointed to 
assignment. 

20 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFF" 
DEP. OF PUBLIC WORKS 



At present , the work is temporarily handled by one of the 
most experienced men in the Bureau, pending training of a 
new man. The workload is entirely too heavy even for the 
experienced man (average 60 hours per week) and calls for 
considerable study and review of new codes and building 
materials in addition to handling a heavy load of plans, 
Los Angeles allegedly has a staff of 17 plan checkers as 
compared with San Francisco's staff of 1-g plan checkers.. 

We recommend that the Plan Cheeking Division have a staff 
of 3 persons, one of imom should be from the architectural 

field. 



There have been many recent advances in structural design 
such as plastic design for steely pre-stressed concrete, 
etc. Private engineers and architects prepare plans with 
the latest innovations and it is difficult for the Bureau 
to check the plans without proper data. Fund 3 should be 
made available for professional courses to bring plan 
checking engineers up-to-date and for the purchase of 
printed technical data. 

(c) Plan Checker - Cen t ral Pe, ™it Jjn reau 

To reduce delays in processing applications by intercepting 
incomplete ard/or faulty plans at their initial receiving 
point, a plan checker should be placed in Central Permit 
Bureau to screen plans as applicant applies for building 
permit. 

(d) Major Plumbing and Elect rical Jobs 

On major plumbing and electrical jobs, plan checking should 
occur before issuance of permit. 

Plumbing Perm i t Processi ng 

Additional personnel should be provided as necessary to the Central 
Permit Bureau to allow them to perform their proper functions, 
the present time, the Plumbing Division personnel are insufficient 
in number to properly process permits and do their own work as well= 



Building peimit records are kept at the Central Permit Bureau and 
electrical, plumbing and occupancy permit records are kept in other 
locations. 

21 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMEHT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



Consideration should be given to a system T inich -would mate it possible 
to keep all records pertaining to a single building in one central 
record system. 

9. Central r'ermitjtoeaa 

This should be made a division of the Bureau of Building Inspection, 
because of inter- related activities. 

10. Equipment 



The Bureau of Building Inspection should be furnished with recording 
and reproduction equipment necessary for efficient hard ling of their 
work, such as a tape recorder-dictating machine, photo-copying and 
mimeographing machines,, 

Extended use of available calculating machines in the calculation of 
fees is also recommended. 

11 o Re^develjppmejTb i Agen cy - Urban n Renewal t Diyi s ion 

Estimates froa Re-development Agency indicate approximately $60~million 
worth of construction during 1961-62 fiscal year. According to the 
Bureau, additional help will be needed, as follows* 

(a) 3 Building Inspectors. 

(b) 2 Plumbing Inspectors. 

(c) 2 Electrical Inspectors. 

(d) 1 Plan Checker to process increased load. 

(e) 2 Engineer's to process the applications. 

(f) 1 Cleric -Typist. 

This level of work would warrant the additional personnel if the 
Bureau is to enforce any level of control as contemplated in the codes . 
The Superintendent of the Bureau should have a floating authorisation 
which would enable him to employ any of the abovenamed groups of em- 
ployees whenever necessary but only for the duration of the So 
development work. In this manner, tire regular wcrk of the Bureau 
could be carried on without creating backlogs or reducing the quality 
of inspection service. 

At the present time, additional stenographic help is needed for Urban 
Renewal and condemnation work. There is considerable delay in typing 
reports which in some instances have to be typed by Inspectors, a 
most inefficient use of personnel. 

12. Public Informtion Service 

In enforcing the codes and administrating their inspection and per 
duties, the Bureau frequently becomes involved in controversial issues 
which are publicized in the presso 

22 



CHIEF AI 

DE'-' 



Occasionally, the Bureau receives unwarranted criticism due to lack 
of information or education on the subject, and a professional type 
of bulletin and copy for newspapers should be prepared and distributed 
to interested groups such as engineers, architects, contractors a3 
well as to the general public and the press » 



BUREAU OF ARCHITECTURE 
Finding 



The Bureau of Architecture, with a staff of 6£, is concerned 
with all new and existing City Buildings with the exception of those 
under the jurisdiction of the Public Utilities Commission ard the 
Recreation and Park Department,, The Bureau is responsible far design 
and construction of new buildings and the modernization, remodelli 
and such maintenance projects of existing buildings as may require 
plans and specifications* The activities of the Bureau are divided 
into two separate but related functions* (l) the proparat 
estimates^ drawings, and specifications; and (2) the supervision of 
construction* 

Under the direction of the Bureau of Architecture, con- 
sulting architectural and engineering Urtiss are usually commissioned 
to design and piepare the working drawings and specifications for 
civic building s« The Bureau assists the interested Department or 
Agency in the preparation of the design program- proxides professional 
review services, and certifies the completion of the architectural 
work through the various stages. The Bureau prepares bid request 
formalities for the Director of Public Works, and upon award of eon- 
tract, supervises the construction through completion and acceptance. 

Under the present plan of organisation, architectural 
talent, together with supporting drafting and clerical services, 
assigned essentially upon a project basis, which tends to circum- 
scribe manpower flexibility. This corapartmentization of the 
organisation is further increased by undesirable physical work 
space lajrout and by separate locations of the marking force,, A para- 
mount consideration should be to provide an Improved physical lay 
for all architectural and engineering work as a means toward 3 
efficiency.? 

Recom mendations 

1. J mp roved Quarters 

All Architecture and Engineering Divisions should be placed in one 
location - preferably at Array Street along with all other Bureau 
the Department of Public Works . 



23 



CHIE ICER 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



2« Board of Education Limit on Repairs 

The present limit of ££00 on repairs should be restored to £2,000 
(and later increased to §£,000) in order that a sizeable number of 
repairs can be handled directly by the Bureau of Building Repair 
without incurring expense in preparing plans and specifications for 
outside bid requests. This change would result either in release 
of personnel or their transfer from the Bureau of Architecture to 
more important projects* 

3« Roving Supervisor and Co~ordina tor 

The City Architect should establish a position of general supervisor 
to assist in distributing the workload , developing production 
schedules and providing more complete supervision- 

ho Staff Heatings 

More staff meetings should be held between inspectors, superinten 
ents, architects, and engineers, including the design division 
discuss use of materials and to exchange information* 

Data on new products should be fully distributed and completely con- 
sidered before an item is included in specific ations. In many 
instances, over- salesmanship on a new product inf luerc es architectural 
selection v*ibh insufficient checking. 

So Vault 

A satisfactory vault, providing security and fire protection for all 
original tracings, should be established. 



(a) The Purchaser's blueprint division should avoid delays in 
issuance of prints. 

(b) Blueprints should be made and a charge instituted inst 

of lending tracings to contractors and risking loss throuj 
fire or misplacement. 

Corresp o nd ence 

Form letters, covering a wide variety of routine matters, should be 
prepared in advance, using mimeograph- so that a considerable number 
of letters could be handled without longhand drafting and individual 
typing. 



<i« 



chief administrative officer 
depart:: ublic works 

8. Modification of Contra cts — 

Coapletion C .^gng ions of Tiros 

The present procedure of distribution should be reviewed to determine 
if some eopies can be eliminated. 

9. Catalog Library 

A special library section should be established to handle catalogs 
on a centralized basis. 

10. Quarters at m k5> _Hyde m Street 

Working conditions, including light, ventilation and heat, should be 
improved. Some offices appear to be very badly overcrowded. 
Immediate action should be taken even though those quarters are 
temporary. 

11. Specificat ions 

Four pages of Section A of the general specifications are standard 
material, yet re-typed for every job. These pages should be printed 
or reproduced in quantity. 

12. Microf ilm-Reader Printer 

All specifications should be microfilmed with microfilm prints used. 

G. BUREAU OF EaBIHBEgBIG 

Findings 

The Bureau of Engineering, with a staff of 301 persons, is 
concerned with engineering work for street and sewage systems and 
performs various other engineering services assigned by the Director 
of Public Works or requested by other City agencies. The City En- 
gineer performs duties required by State Law to be performed by a 
County Surveyor. 

Other Departments and Bureaus of the City are in effect 
clients of the Bureau of Engineering and provide funds to support 
its work. The Bureau performs its professional services thro 
eight organizational divisions: Design, Streets and Highways, Traffic 
Engineering, Surveys and Mapping, Construction, Contract Administration, 
Office Management, and Recreation and Park Engineering recently re- 
assigned to the Bureau- 

Each division of the Bureau operates substantially as a 
separate entity with its own supporting drafting and clerical ser- 
vices. This tends toward rigidity in manpower assignments, and 
limits management's ability to achieve maximum manpower flexibility 
and control of resulting costs - 



^ 






Ihe present undesirable physical working space layout and 
separate locations of the working force make it of first importance 
to provide an improved physical layout as a means toward improved 
efficiency.. 

A major reorganization concept is proposed in Part II of 
our recommendations with regard to this Bureau- 

Recommend ation3 

lu Quarters 

Ail sections of the Bureau should be consolidated and located 
central point - preferably Army Street* 

2 . ';fcd*;. J$V%£rPf?P;T}& Costis^^ Job Cpsts 

Funds should be appropriated to conduct surveys for the purpose of 
establishing unit costs and make comparative studies of the pract 
of other cities and business firms,. 

This would greatly assist in developing methods of work programmi] 
and budgeting and would eliminate the present inability to aecura 
determine cost of jobs- In addition, the various divisions would 
become more cost conscious, thereby reducing the number of .jobs n 
quiring re-runs and similar expensive procedures » On certain pro- 
jects*, use of inter- departmental personnel for work to be performed 
by budgetary personnel results in an overstatement of cosl 

3« Recreati on _and Park Division 

Action should be taken to fully integrate this division with the 
isting engineering organization, eliminating duplicate services^ 
This group should not remain at the present McLaren Lodge loce ; 



ho 



Reasonably frequent meetings of supervise:. 

views on current activities., new materials and engineering practice 

would result in better co-ordination., 

Modif i cation of Controls 

Approval of funds covering modification in contracts should be spe 
up because in many instances ? delays of one to three weeks result 
difficulties for contractors, particularly on small jobs<> 






CHIEF ADMINI OFFICER 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



RscndtBBoat Program 



The Bureau, in conjunction with Civil Service, should make a study 
of practices and methods employed by private industry and Federal and 
State agencies to develop an effective recruitnent program based on 
up-to-date personnel policies. Every effort should be made to est- 
ablish proper age groups and provide for succession without gaps* 

7* Contr act Liaison Officer 

A contract liaison officer (a high level engineer) should be assigned 
to act as an aide to the Assistant City Engineer to scrutinize con- 
tracts and check specifications for proper application. 

8* Testing Division 

The number of testing division personnel should be increased* Their 
activities involve testing soil, steel s concrete, and miscellaneous 
materials. (This work involves construction activities rather than 
exploration work which is usually performed by a private consultant 
under contract,,) Also, obsolete or ineffective testing equipment 
should be replaced ° 

9. Inspectors 

Steps should be taken to attract some younger man to this division 
to provide a normal staff balance as to age. A new construction 
manual should be prepared to ensure uniform inspecting methods. 

10. New Materials 



Staff meetings will provide for discussion on merits of new materials 
which are often specified as a result of over- sale smanship, without 
due regard to defects discovered through experience. 

llo Traffic Permits 

All public utilities as well as the Public Utilities Commission of the 
City should be required to obtain a clearance at no charge from the 
Traffic Division before any permit for street xrork is issued. In 
addition., all private contractors should be required to clear street 
work with the Traffic Division. 

12. Traffic Research 

Funds should 'be appropriated to conduct research on accident causes 
and on such matters as the effect of high rise apartments on traffic 
congestion. The present scientific approach practiced by the Traffic 
Division is very eoir-raendable and the fine results to date warrant 
these further studies to assist them in their work. 



27 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



13. Traffic Paint Supervision 

A general paint superintendent of street traffic guides, lines, 
etc., should be provided to closely supervise and direct these act- 
ivities performed by the Bureau of Building Repair under order of the 
Traffic Division.. 

lit. Street^ and _ J&gjraays Diyisi on 

The Building Code should be amended in order that plans for new 
buildings or alterations on old buildings must indicate grades at 
gutter, curb, and property lines. This would enable street and side- 
walk inspectors to adequately check plans before approval of permit. 

Considerable record-keeping now performed by inspectors should be 
re-evaluated, with view toward its elimination or its reassignment to 
lower level employees, releasing inspectors for inspection work. 

Duplication in complaint matters should be eliminated and all com- 
plaints should be co-ordinated through the Bureau of Street Repair 
at Army Street. 

15. Public Informat ion 

Doth public information and contact groups should be separated 
from engineering groups. 

16. Survey and Mapping Division 

(a) Regular Work 

This division is frequently required to halt its regular 
work to handle special urgent jobs, mostly arising from 
the Re-development Agency. A considerable backlog of 
work now exists and it is recommended a floating 
authorization be given the Division Head to employ per- 
sonnel as needed for temporary work, thereby permitting 
continuance of regular work. 

(b) New Equipment 

Replacement with up-to-date equipment is needed for 
proper operation of the Bureau. The entire replacement 
program would probably not exceed $10,000 in cost. 

(c) Purchasing Methods 

Purchasing Department should review present practices 
in buying equipment for the division. 



28 






(d) Survey Parties 

Wore efficiency would result if survey paj'ties reported 
directly to their field jobs each morning instead of to 
the office at the City Hall, 



17^ Contracts 



Slight variations between contract and original appropriati-. 

be allowed by the Controller, when meaning oS job is not materially 

changed. 



Numerous problems such as traffic signals, stop signs, no parking 
signs, and speed, limits are now referred to Board of Supervise 
These matters should be referred to a Board of Review, headed by the 
Director of Public Works, and after a public hearing, the Director 
would take appropriate action,. 

19 o Office Activities 

A methods analysis of present "work order" processing activities 
should be initiated, to achieve any possible simplification or pro- 
cedural improvements* 



Deposits for work to be performed for private property owner, when 
such work cannot be performed by private contractor should be acce 
by the Bureau., 



BUREAU OF STREET REPAIR 



The Bureau of Street Repair has an operating staff of 
persons and its principal work consists of maintenance 
streets, gutters s curbs, retaining walls, public s 
underpasses and overpasses, guard rails and fences, m- ' 3 of 

city dumps, maintenance and operation of lift bridges 
traffic channelization^ minor street alte' 
and emergency work,. 

The city's charter provides that without bids, repair or 
reconstruction of any one job shall not exceed a cost of $2,000. 
Other legal restrictions on the Bureau's work are also in effe- 

The present physical Ihyout of the Bureau appears tc be 
satisfactory and the equipment to be in good physical condition; 

29 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 
BEPARTTWf OF PUBLIC WORKS 



The office quarters are somewhat crowded but the general 
foremen are in the office only at specific intervals of the day. It 
appears questionable if these general foremen should be required to 
be on their Jobs (in the office and in the field) daily from 6:^) a.m e 
to 5:00 p.m. or later., and this may be further evidence of the ased 
for supervisory assistance at the management level. 

R e com men dations 

1. Asphal t Plant 

The advisability of increasing the production of the asphalt plant- 
to a yearly output of 75*000 tons to reduce the average cost per ton., 
should be considered. 

2. Granite Curbing 

The use of granite curbing should be discontinued., to be replaced 
with concrete curb as reconstruction pursues its normal course* This 
change will minimise cost and potential industrial injuries, and v 
for uniform construction practices,. 

3» Damage Salts 

The Superintendent should receive reports on civil suits for damages 
from the office of the City Attorney, because at present there appears 
to be lack of co-ordination* The City Attorney 5 s office should pro- 
vide fall information and data concerning each case to be circulated 
among the staff with meetings held to study the factors involved s 
to avoid recurrence. This would help reduce the number of damage 
claims and litigation and judgement costs arising from faulty pave- 
ments. 

^* ffioyk Sc heduling 

The Bureau endeavors to schedule its work so that the traffic 
will continue as smoothly as possible. The contracts between 
and private contractors should contain previsions to this effect, 
and such provisions should be strictly enforced. 

S>. Assistant i to Superintendent of m Street J tepair 



A suitable assistant should be provided the Superintendent of Street 
Repair who is presently carrying a heavy workload far beyond the 
normal scope of his job at the expense of proper supervision and 
adequate work programming. For example, the bulk of the street re- 
pair program is developed from complaints by the public. If an 
assistant were provided, not necessarily titled Assistant Superinten- 
dent, but perhaps Planning Engineer, etc., one of the typical 
functions of his job would be to schedule such repair work* 

30 



TIVE OWH 



This kind of work program is absolutely essential to efficient 
operation in this period of high labor and material costs^ This 
assistant could also supervise the personnel in the Bridges and 
Tunnels Division,. 



BUREAU OF STREET CLEA'UHG & PLATTSDI5 



The Bureau of Street Cleaning and Planting, with a staff 
of 31 6., is reaponsible for cleaning 1,6^0 curb miles of improved 
streets and 8? curb miles of traffic islands; maintaining 100 acres 
of landscaped areas and parkways, and 6. 500 street trees: and cleaning 
tile surfaces of the Broadway and Stockton Street tunnelso 

This cleaning work is performed by blockmen, gang sweeping 
crews, motor sweepers, motor flushers, litter control trucks- and 
supporting clean-up utility trucks.- The Bureau and its staff are 
under the direction of a Superintendent who is supported by five 
District Foremen and a street planting supervisor.- 

The entire operation is inherently an expensive manual 
labor effort* Maximum substitution of labor-saving equipment and 
maximum stretching of routes with minimum clean-up frequency P con- 
sistent with health requirements., are substantially the only avenues 
open to reduce costs* 

Recommendjticris 

Anti-Litter ^Enforcement 

Better control of street littering would be accomplished hyz 

(a) Implementing a continuing, well-planned program of educating 
the public to help keep city streets clean- Repetitive dis- 
semination of persuasive publicity should be employed, 

(b) Assigning one or mere regular police officers on a con- 
tinuing basis to the Bureau of Street Gleaning and Planting 
to enforce the anti -littering ordinances of the city and 
assist in educating the public . 



A more effective and economical means of cleaning city streets would 
re suit t 

(a) If street cleaning operations are conducted on a seven-day 

week basis with personnel placed on a rotational work schedule 
whereby Saturday, Sunday and Holiday work is equitably 
distributed <, 



CHIEF AUsHttSM&nVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



This scheduling x-ri.ll eliminate the present practice of 
time and a half for Saturday and double time for Sunday 
work, now being performed by a limited staff. 

(b) If hours of work are not confined to the traditional 7:00 
a.m. shift. Work hours should be based on peculiarities 
related to -various "districts", i.e.- street parking of 
vehicles, pedestrian traffic, average degree of littering, 
etc Early or late starting shift assignments may result 
in minor wage adjustments over the normal straight time 
rate. (At one time, there was an extensive night operation 
but none is in effect now. } 

(c) If ordinances are enacted and enforced to control street 
parking of vehicles in all areas wherever practical. For 
example, street parking of vehicles should be scheduled 
and/or prohibited, with tow-away provisions in all commer- 
cial., industrial, and certain other selected areas between 
the hours of 3:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m. daily. This would 
permit the extensive use of mechanized street sweeping and 
cleaning equipment and reduce the need for large numbers of 
blockmen and gang sweepers. It is estimated that about 100 
men could be eliminated - saving of approximately $850,000 
a year. This estimation is based on the assumption of a 
reclassification from laborer (J-li) to street cleaner 
classification as recommended by the Jacobs Company survey 
which would convert pay to a monthly salary basis. 

This policy would change the present program, whereby the 
motor sweepers and motor flushers now tend to supplement 
the manual street cleaning force. The present motorized 
equipment is not being fully utilized because vehicle 
parking is not restricted. 

(d) If utilization of mechanical street cleaning equipment is 
extended, making greater use of the present motorized 
equipment and purchasing more equipment, especially 
flushers. Radio communication on equipment should be used 
more extensively. 

3« Working Quarters 

Here office space is required for the District Foremen and Clerical 
staff. Nine people are now occupying 382 square feet of office space, 
about h2 square feet per person, with radio dispatching work also 
conducted in this crowded open area, adding to -the noise and confusion. 
Larger office space should be provided and the radio operation con- 
ducted in a closed area<> 



32 



CHIEF ASMESISTRATIVE OFFICER 
DEPART' i'BLIC WORKS 



Organization 



Records indicate the existence of five Street Cleaning Districts, 
with each district supervised by a District Foreman, but in fact, 
there are really only four districts supervised by four Foremen, 
leaving the fifth Foreman free to act as an assistant to the 
Superintendent * 

This procedure tends to relieve the Superintendent of some detail 
work but creates a hardship en the four District Foremen, reducing 
their supervisory capabilities and adding responsibilities over 
districts larger than can be effectively controlled under the present 
work program. The need for an assistant to the Superintendent is not 
as essential as the need for direct supervision at the level where 
m&3timum employment occurs and the need to assure quantity and quality 
production is greatest,, 

Until an extensive program for mechanical street cleaning can bs 
accomplished ani manpower in the manual cleaning operations substan- 
tially reduced, the five districts should be re-established with a 
Foreman responsible for each district and their duties and respon- 
sibilities distributed on an equitable basi3. 

As long as there is extensive use of blockmen, then a sub-Foreman 
should be assigned to handle blockmen by district-, thereby- relieving 
the District Foreman to supervise the District sub-Foreman more closely. 

When maximum conversion from manual -bo mechanical street cleaning has 
been accompli died, it msj he practical to have only four districts 
because of less manpower ani reduced supervision requirements. At 
this time, the nature of operations may require that the Superintendent 
have an assistant to effectively administer anti -littering programs 
and enforcement and to provide continual work programming in the 
interest of effecting further economies, 

Blockmen^ Time-cards 

Bloeknea should mail each afternoon, before !j:30 p.m., time cards and 
reports of conditions and necessary repairs, using p re-addressed, 
stamped envelopes. This would eliminate 2 time clerk positions. 
(Estimated annual savings - $12,^80.*) 

Vacations 

At present, vacations are scheduled mainly during the summer months, 
a very active period due to visitors, school vacations and little or 
no rain. Replacements are not provided and vacations should therefore 
be scheduled throughout the year. 



33 



CHIEF AI .'AlVE OFFICER 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



7 1 Organisational Change 



The Street Tree Planting Division of the Bureau ox Street Cleaning 
and Planting should be transferred to the Recreation and Park Depart- 
ment, which will effect better utilization of manpower, materials, 
equipment, and related skills. She Street Tree Planting Division 
should retain its identity as an operating unit and gas tax funds 
should be allocated separately to the Division. The Division should 
also have freedom of contact with civic groups, and freedom to conduct 
its own research. 



J. BUREAU OF SEWER REPAIR AND SEWAGE TREATMENT 



The Bureau of Sewage Repair and Sewage Treatment maintains 
and repairs public sewers and appurtenances, operates and maintains 
pumping stations and treatment plants, conducts surveys of shore 
waters, analyzes air for pollutants and handles mosquito abatement 
activities. Advisory and technical, services are also furnished to 
the Public Utilities Commission, Juvenile Court, Sheriff, Recreation 
and Park Department, and Health Department, with regard to sewage 
treatment plants maintained by these departments outside of the city 
limits. 

This Bureau operates under the general direction of the 
Assistant Director of Public Works - Maintenance and Operation, and 
under the supervision of the Superintendent of Sewer Repair and Sewage 
Treatment. The oresent staff, consisting of 2i«,7 persons, plus ten 
full-time maintenance personnel, carried on the rolls of other 
department s. 

The Bureau work involves administration of a basic repair 
and maintenance function, and administration of sn around-the-clock 
chemical processing operation* Because of the extreme divergence of 
objectives and responsibilities, there is minimum opportunity for 
exchange of personnel or reviewing business practices and ideas. 

The Bureau has three divisions: the sewage treatment 
division operates under the direction of a Super .intendent who also 
serves as Assistant Bureau Head. This arrangement pinpoints divisional 
responsibility and enables the Bureau Head to concentrate on the sewer 
repair division which he heads in addition to his duties of Bureau 
Heado Current responsibility for the sewage pumping division is also 
in the hands of the Bureau Head due to the serious illness of the 
regular full-time division headc 

The work of the sewer repair division is currently divided 
into two parts: the construction of main am side sewers and the 
cleaning of all sewer lines and catch basins. Two Assistant Super- 
intendents, each in charge of one of these activities would appear to 
be unnecessary for effective supervision.. 

3h 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



A sewer rental tax program now in operation in over 200 
major cities in the United States, could be established in San 
Francisco and would return about $1 ,5^)0 ,000 annually. This sewer 
rental tax can be billed with charges for water and would relieve 
real property taxpayers of a portion of the cost of sewage treatment 
by equitably apportioning it among users. In addition, the State and 
Federal Government s, which now pay no city taxes, would help pay for 
this program each month xirhen they pay their water billo The average 
cost a month per householder would be nominal (i.e.;, $0$ per tenant 
or householder), and about 60$ of the cost would be carried by 
commercial water users at some figure such as 1$% of their water bill* 
An ordinance on this matter was passed for- a second reading by the 
Board of Supervisors several years ago. 

Recommendations 

1 ij^HS^^^JiS^Sj^iS^iS 

The position of Industrial Waste Engineer, vacant for about two years, 
should be filled. This division and the Bureau are held responsible 
for the effective handling of this problem and this position should 
be filled promptly.. Employing two Industrial Waste inspectors would 
help recapture the time already lost as well as give added impetus to 
enforcement* 

2« Gas Petecjy.on > Ja^_ Watgr^Ch^gadgt 

The Gas Detection Unit Water Chemist should be transferred to the 
Sewage Treatment Division, even though the full-time work assignment 
would still be scheduled by the Sewer Repair Division* This would 
provide for flexible assignment among the seven Water Ghemist3 of the 
Bureau to ensure full-time coverage and at the same time, providing 
promotion opportunities for these employees to such positions as 
Chemist at the sewage treatment plants. 

3 • Chlorine_ Use jand j Storage 

(a) A special, appropriation should be furnished to cover the cost 
of research on the proper amount of chlorine needed to safely 
operate the system in off -hours since too much is probably being 
utilised. An annual saving of $30,000 may be effected. At 
present, the Dow Chemical Company - the principal supplier « 
does not conduct research along this line. 

(b) Consideration should be given to the safety aspect pertinent 
to the present method of storing chlorine. 



35 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC TORKS 



(a) Whenever possible, standardize equipment and parts. 

(b) Utilize all workable parts when tearing out old equipment. 

(c) Spare parts should be inventoried at time station is activated. 

5. Statistical Reporting 

A large volume of statistical reporting is performed by the North 
Point Chief Sewage Plant Operator and should be evaluated as to its 
operating necessity with specific adherence to: 

(a) Quantity of detail figures and manhours required for com- 
pilation; acd 

(b) Ultimate practical value to either operating or top bureau 
management,, 

It appears that statistical reporting can be drastically simplified 
and substantial portions completely eliminated. 

6. Stand-by for Emergency Work ~ Sewer Repairs 

A possible solution to needed emergency coverage of sewer repair 
during normal off-duty hours is to rotate stand-by duties among the 
sewer cleaners, paying a percentage of base pay for the period of 
time an individual is standing by. This would cost approximately 
$h 9 $0Q per year. 

7. Materials and Sx 

All supplies incidental to sewer repair operations should be moved 
from Fifteenth and Harrison Streets to Army Street to reduce lost 
crew time spent in travelling between the locations. 

8« Mi scellaneous 

The following items should be given consideration by supervision at 
and above the Bureau level: 

(a) There should be a speed-up of accounting reports to provide 
supervision with adequate reports for effective managsnenb „ 

(b) Requests for supplementary appropriations should be ex- 
pedited, due to the emergaicy inherent in the nature of 
bureau operations: and 

(c) Classification of equipment should not inelude items such 
as books, ladders, etc. 



36 



CHIEF ADMEIHSTRATIVE OFHCER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 

9 s, Sewer Regaj-jg^pA^-gioK 

(a) Side Sew er Repair r C harges 

The present practice of chafing property owners for the repair 
of side sewers should be discontinued. Side sewers from the 
curb to the main sewer line should be maintained and repaired 
by the city and not by the property owner, in a manner similar 
to the maintenance and repairs of streets. This is more 
ethical and practical, and can be accomplished at a slight 
additional cost of about $2 £,000 per year. 

Struc ture 



The currant organisational structure of this division is top 
heavy, with two Assistant Superintendents, one of whom is 
supervising two General Foremen and the other supervising one 
General Foreman. 

The number of crews assigned to each of the five supervisors 
is not equitably distributed for balanced workload, as the 
following table indicates: 

Supervisor Crews Employees 

Asst. Supt. - Construction 
Gen r l,. Foreman ~ Main Sewers 
Gen 1 !. Foreman - Side Sewers 

Construction 

Asst. Supt. - Operations 
Gen T l. Foreman - Sewer Claaning 

Operations 

Sewer Repair Totals; 

This Sewer Repair Division should be reorganized into three distinct- 
groups, each under the supervision of a General Foreman, reporting 
directly to the % vision Head.* with larger crews and the v.se> of dis- 
trict sub-fcremen. Tiiis would substitute 6 sub-foremen for the present 
2 Assistant Superintendents and trould result in the new organisation 
illustrated below: 

General Gengral Ge:ieral 

Foreman Foreman Foreman 

Sewer Construction Sewer Cleaning Era=rgency Woric 

and by (Repairs and Cleaning) 

\ T on-emergency Repair 3 Distinct Districts* 3 Distinct Districts* 



6 


10 






12 


28 


a 


Lnclo k cha" 


s 


32 


(j 


Lncl. 20 non- 
budgeted 


23 


68 






6 


21 






n 


2 






19 


60 






12 


128 







3? 



CKLEF ADMBESTRASlyE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



General 
Foreman 

6 "crews" 



General 

Foreman 

3 Sub-foremen 

over 
2 crews each 



General 
Foreman 

3 Sub-Forercen 

each covering a District 

with one ores each 



6 "crews" 3 "crews' 5 

* Conforming to present sex-rage treatment areas. 

This reorganisation would result in better grouping of similar work;, 
better balance of work load and modification of supervision to effect 
more efficiency in the field. 

10. Sewage Pumping^and a Sewage t Treatment Division 



The Sewage Pumping Division and Sewage Treatment Division should 
be merged* reorganized- and divided into three district operations 
conforming with the three existing treatment plant districts. 

The consolidation and reorganization will provide the following 
advantages: 

(a) Result in efficient utilization of existing personnel, 

(b) Reduce the tendency toward extreme specialization of skills, 

(c) Improve co-ordination of pumping and treatment activities, 

and 

(d) Provide greater flexibility in operating snd maintenance 
assignments to the end that a proper balance is achieved • 

Greater concentration is needed on preventive maintenance in these 
divisions. The investment in plant and equipment is such that this 
work should be done continually on a planned and scheduled basis . 

To estimate the long-term value of a reorganisation which gives 
greater focus on preventive maintenane e, a surve^ should talcs into 
account the following considerations involving the three sewage 
treatment plants and the fourteen sewage pumping stations: 

(a) Original cost, 

(b) Original estimated life, 

(c) Current condition of plant and equipment, 

(d) Estimated remaining life with current maintenance approach, 

(e) Estimated remaining life with more emphasis on maintenance, 

and 

(f) Current replacement cost* 

38 



STMTIVE OFFICER 
DEPAEHIEHT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



It would become obvious, from a dollar and cents point of view, that 
increased emphasis on maintenance can result in savings of possibly- 
several millions of dollars. With better maintenance, these 
facilities will last longer than under current maintenance practices 
and thereby greatly postpone the large cost of replacement. 

(B) Use of Automatic Equipment 

Some automatic, alarm and remote control equipment is utilized 
on weekends and on the off- shifts in sewage pumping stations* 
This practice should be expanded, looking toward automatic 
2l*-hour, seven-day per week coverage wherever possible. 

Proper appreciation is badly needed on the part of city manage- 
ment that operations of the sewage treatment plants must be 
handled differently than work which is performed only during 
daylight hours. Key positions must be manned 2U hours per day, 
seven days per week. Provision should be made to hancOs 
absenteeism or illness in one of the following manners: 

(a) Provide for sufficient overt imo payment when operators 
must remain at their post to cover the succeeding shift* 

(b) Provide for appropriate upgraded pay for a Junior 
Operating Engineer to the pay of Operating Engineer, 
when he is designated to cover for an absent operating 
engineer during his regular shift. 

(c) Provide an active list of temporary .junior operating 
engineers that can be quickly called to cover absentees 
(this could include a minimum number of personnel paid 
some form of standby pay during the period they are 
subject to call). 

K. BUREAU OF BUILDING REPAIR 
Findings 

The Bureau of Striding Repair, with a staff of 318, primarily 
provides services and materials for maintenance, repair, replacement, 
and reconstruction of the 316 City and County buildings which have 
been established by Charter authority or by policy as being the res- 
ponsibility of the Department of Public Works. In addition, the 
Bureau's activities include the following s. 

1« Providing operating and custodial personnel and supplies for 31 
of the above buildings -ahich require the full-time services of 
11? employees. 

39 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBIIC WORKS 



2-. Providing necessary maintenance and repair services to other 
City Departments through an inter-departmental work order pro- 
cedure or by competitive public contract, 

3. Making estimates of repair and maintenance costs on public 
buildings. (The recent establishment of detailed reports 
indicating the luiit costs of the maintenance and repair for 
each building is particularly valuable.) 

k» Providing inspection and survey services necessary for the 
development of a preventive maintenance program, as well as 
providing technical consultation to the operating activities in 
the appropriate maintenance and repair of properties. 

5>« Budgeting and providing labor, materials, supplies and contractual 
services for street traffic painting, maintenance and repair of 
street name signs 5 and the repair of sidewalks fronting on Ci 
property. 

A considerable amount of routine building repair work is 
handled bj repair divisions of other departments. This practice 
should be discontinued and all such operations centralized in the 
Bureau of Building Repair. The advantages of centralized activitj'- 
•should be apparent to all agencies. 

The Bureau should make surveys on a continuing basis to 
check the unit cost of repair, maintenance am janitorial work to 
determine whether these are higher than the cost through outside con- 
tract, Emphasis should be placed on the development of a work pro; 
a system of work measurement and regular analyses of Bureau operations 
and unit costs. An increase in close supervision of craftsmen act- 
ivities is needed at all times to assure quality and quantity of 
performance. 

In a number of buildings, personnel are assigned on a perm- 
anent basis but the supervision and assignment of work is not cleg,: 
designated because of divided authority between the building custodian 
and the Bureau foreman, Effective supervision over all Bureau 
personnel on permanent assignment, in addition to the continuance of 
daily records covering each employee* s activities, would result in 
improved perfcsTnanee. 

A completely centralized building repair and building 
maintenance service should be provided for all public building s, In 
order to achieve greater maintenance and operating economies, it is 
essential to have: 

(a) A soundly co-ordinated plan for programming the maintenance 
of all public buildings on a continuing basis, 

hP 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WDRKS 



(b) Assurance that the full life expectancy of these structures 
will be realized, 

(c) Maximum utilisation of specialised skills and equipment, 

(d) Optimum supervision to ensure uniformity and quality of 
maintenance work; and 

(e) A constant work load for competent administrative and 
technical staff and craftsmen. 

Recomme ndations 

1« Ordinanc M e < Changes 

(a) A complete statement of the functions and responsibilities of 
the Bureau of Building Repair should be defined by ordinance, 
specifying exceptions, if any, in building repair activities 
to be handled independently by City agencies other than the 
Bureau. (See Recommendations involving Charter Change.) 

(b) Place under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Building Repair., 
all building maintenance and repair personnel, equipment and 
shop facilities now the responsibility of other agencies and 
whose functions would be transferred to the Bureau. After the 
transfer is effected, manpower and other requirements should 
be studied "to eliminate duplications* (Estimated annual 
saving - $100,000.) 



An adequate- competent Supervisory and Architectural-Engineering Staff 
should be established within the Bureau to systematically develop and 
execute a co-ordinated building maintenance and. repair program » 



The Bureau should submit for annual budget qaproval only those main- 
tenance ani repair items which have been thoroughly screened^ co- 
ordinated and programmed on the basis of necessity and economy, thereby 
replacing the present numbered priority system. Any reviewing 
authority proposing major changes, such as reducing the amount to be 
expended in the preliminary budget items, should realistically evaluate 
all changes on the same basis » 

h« Centralized. Staff 

Janitors, operating engineers, window washers, and craftsmen should be 
centralized in one division to provide effective utilization of staff* 

ta 



CHIEF ADMIHLSTRMIVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBIIC WORKS 



A reduction in -the number of operating engineers could be effected 
by further automation of equipment and with assignment of men by- 
districts or by groupings of buildings. (Estimated annual sabring - 
$25,000.) 



The practice of permitting the Bureau to bid competitively with "out- 
side" bidders on work costing in excess of $5*000 should be continued. 
(How ."52,000.) 

6. ? e ™^.^tJlQ^ l .,^?£^g.^fSl!'i^ 

The practice of permanently head-quartering various maintenance and 
repair personnel at specific building locations where the volume of 
work warrants such assignments should be continued. All such assign- 
ments should have continuing supervision by the Bureau with complete 
daily personnel performance records prepared. 

7* Reassi gnment m of W ork 

Transfer the following duties o.r^. responsibilities, including assoc- 
iated personnel, from the Bureau of Building Repair to the Department 
indicated, for reasons of activity relationship and economy: 

(a) Maintenance arr5 repair of street name signs - to Department of 
Electricity. 

(b) Repair of street structures and sidewalks fronting city-owned 
property and of various monuments in street areas - to the 
Bureau of Street Repc 



\! / V 



(c) School sewer repairs to the Bureau of Sewer Repair. 

(d) Ditch digging at schools frctn ceraenb finishers to laborers in 
Bureau of Street or Sewer Repair. 

8. Staffing i for Work Load 

The occasional practice of creating an artificial »rk load, by manu- 
facturing building components which are not normally related to 
routine maintenance and repair, should be discontinued. 

This practice, which includes the wholesale manufacture of such items 
as window- ventilators, appears to be a means of justifying the re- 
tention of a large staff when the work load is below peak. It is 
contrary to the established policy of competitively bidding this 
work. A concerted effort should be made to permanently staff this 
Bureau at a level which is commensurate with the minimum experienced 
work load j supplementing this group with additional personnel only 
as peak loads occur. 

I»2 



CHIEF ADf-ENISTRATIVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT CF PUBUC WORKS 



Establish a priority system of written woxk orders, now verbally 
changed to "rush orders" , in order to ensure the proper and timely 
execution of the jobs. 

10. Window Washers 

Provision for transportation would increase coverage. 

11. Assistant Supe rintendent 

When the next vacancy occurs , the Bureau should obtain an administrator 
experienced in planning, scheduling and developing work programs <. On© 
of the Assistant Superintendent positions requires a background of 
work program development, management analysis and training programs 
covering administrative and supervisory practices* 

12. Ie**JL=2S^LEl^ 

The Senior Operating Engineer at City Hall and other designated 
positions should be provided with a $25 petty cash fund to cover the 
purc'a se of materials and supplies needed for immediate or emergency 
attention. 

13. City Hall ^Elevators 

The six manually operated elevators in the City Hall should be con- 
verted to automatic operation, This will result in a net estimated 
annual saving of $22-750 (see Table A) over the cost to operate and 
maintain the present elevators., and will eliminate a dangerous safety 
hazard. Passengers are exposed to the shaftway when the elevator is 
in operation, and the City faces the prospect of potentially expensive 
liability in the event serious injury should occur. 

TABLSA 

Conversion of City < Hall E]gya,tors 

The following assumptions were made: 

(a) That the City Hall will continue to be utilized, for at least 
25 more years, 

(b) That the remaining life of the existing elevators is less 
than 25 years, unless an excessive amount of money is expended 
to extend this life, 

(c) That the gross annual salary cost, includiag fringe benefits, 
of the 8 elevator operators is approximately &It6, 55C based on 
1961-62 wage rates, 

U3 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



(d) That the cost to convert the six elevators to automatic 
operation is estimated to be about $520,000, 

(e) That conversion to automatic operation tall result in 
increased maintenance costs over the cost to maintain 
the existing elevators of approximately $3.5 000 per year 
due to the complexity of the xsav equipment; and 

(f) That these elevators will have a useful life expectancy 
of 2$ years after the con%*ersion is completed . These 
savings will be effected as follows: 

(Based on 25-year Operation): 

Gross Saving in Elevator Operators' Salaries ..... Sl,l63,750 

Less - Cost to Convert to Automatic Operation .... 520,000 

Less - Increased Maintenance Costs over Present Elevators .,.,_,.. JJ^JXiO 

Net 25-year Saving .... $ 568,750 

or 22,750 per yes 

lijo Purchase Limitation 



Foremen and others are limited to #25 in purchasing parts and supplies, 
in any one day from an approved vendor. If cost exceeds $25? then 
purchase must be made by Purchasing Department who shop for prices or 
take bids, causing undesirable delay. 

It is recommended that the purchase limit be increased and that a 
Purchasing Department representative be placed in the Army Street 
office of the Public Works Department to expedite all purchases. 

Procedure in purchasing from approved -/endors and the adequacy of 
the present -1VS0,000 limit, owing at any one tine, should be reviewed. 

15* Building Limitations on Board of Education Work 



The Department of Public Works has been required since 1958 to prepare 
plans and specifications and solicit bids from "outside" firms on all 
jobs where the estimated cost is over $500 s.j! which jobs relate to 
the maintenance and repair of buildings under the jurisdiction of the 
Board of Education. This requirement was established by the members 
of the Board of Education, assuming they would receive a better quality 
of work and faster service at less cost. Further, this action was 
taken in the face of rising costs and in spite of the fact that the 
Charter contains a $2,000 limitation for such work on all other pub] 
buildings, which limit in itself is now being considered for upward 
revision* 

hk 



CHIEF AIMIM STRATI VE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



Experience with this restrictive limitation indicates the following 
disadvantages have been incurred: 

(a) It places a heavier work load on the Bureau of Architecture 
in the form of additional plans, specifications an! ex- 
tensive bid preparation and processing. For example, in a 
seven-month period, some 2? jobs amounting to the small 
total of $18. 535 worth of work were processed by this Bureau 
which would not have been necessary had the $2,000 limitation 
been observed. 

(b) It creates additional work for, and complicates scheduling of 
work by, the Bureau of Building Repair due to their pre- 
paration of bids on the same vork in competition with "out- 
side" bidders. 

(c) It results in greater cost to ptvform the same amount of work. 
For example, overhead eosts have constituted 35% of an $890 
job in this group $ asnd 

(d) It necessarily results in many hidden costs, which cannot be 
measured, and no appreciable improvement in the quality of the 
work is evident nor has the work been expedited. If anything, 
delay has been considerably greater. 

It is recommended that the Board of Education review their experience 
with this procedure, giving earnest consideration to restoring the 
bidding requirement to its former limit. 



16 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OEEICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



L. RECOTMENDATIONS INVOLVING CHARTER CHANGES 

I Ma T jqr Reorganization of i the Bu reau of Eng ineering (See following 
report and chart's J'T'"" 

II Adjustment of Bidding ^Practices 

The Department of Public Works should be permitted to perform work 
within their normal scope up to a maximum of *3>,000 without com- 
petitive bidding, in lieu of the present $2,000 limitation. This 
Tri.ll balance increased costs experienced primarily in the last lU 
years. (All applicable Bureaus.) 

Ill Consolidation of < Building i Ma^tenance ii and ^Repair Activities 



The responsibility for performing preventive maintenance on and repair 
to all public buildings should be placed on the Bureau of Building 
Repair. This responsibility should include buildings now under the 
jurisdiction and /or trusteeship of the 3oard of Education, Recreation 
and Park Department, Public Utilities Commission, California Academy 
of Sciences, de Young Museum. Palace of the Legion of Honor and War 
Memorial and Opera House. (Bureau of Building Repair.) 

IV Centrali zed Custodial Services 

(a) Custodial services should be contracted for with "out- 
side" maintenance firms, wherever possible, on a progressive and 
continuing basis. Hive to court rulings on applicable Charter pro- 
visions, the City cannot now contract with private contractors for 

any "regular" vrork which is covered by an established job classification.. 
The Charter should be amended to permit performance of all "regul 
work by contract with private contractors whenever this practice will 
serve the best interest of the -taxpayers. 

(b) All custodial and upkeep personnel not contracted for 
with "outside" maintenance firms, such as janitors, certain operating 
engineers, window washers and designated craftsmen, should be cent- 
ralized in one division of the Bureau of 3uilding Repair to provide 
effective utilisation of staff. (Bureau of Building Repair.) 



246 






BUREAU OF ENGINEERING 

RECOMMEMDATEOHS IOTOLVEWS CHARTER CHA?GB 

Reorganisa tion 

Tiie Problem 

The manner in which -various engineering activities are employed on a city- 
wide basis creates a problem which can best be defined in two parts: 

(a) The various engineering activities new operate as independent and 
internally compartment ed units without benefit of full co-ordination 
and centralized guidance. This produced a fragmented type of 
operation, compounded to a marked degree ay the physical separation 
of personnel o 

(b) The several organisation units, particularly the Bureau of Engin- 
eering have not kept pace with desired organisation structures and 
methods of operation designed to cope with increased work loads 
and the necessity for better utilisation of existing personnel. 

Although this total engineering effort is of a sise equal to or greater 
than comparable engineering units in industry, there has been no re-directed 
effort to offset higher co-ordination costs with the smaller economies rade 
possible by functional specialization. The obvious disadvantages of such 
an approach, with many duplications of activities, can only result in in- 
efficiency and greatly increased costs. 

ii.s n of i h Current ^Conditions 

A study of the type of work handled by the current organisation of engin- 
eering forces shows that there are many factors which : elate one project 
another, such as: 

(a) The relative importance of one project vs« others. 

(b) The related number of people and skills involved. 

(c) The related pressures to accomplish the tasks. 

(d) The relative degree of control needed. 

(e) The relative degree of flexibility and change anticipated. 

(f) The related problems encountered; and 

(g) The relative uniqueness of one project vs. others. 

To-day, these relative values are subordinated to skill specialization and 
to maintenance of a stable work force which is not truly sensitive to 
priority, timing, costs, and changing work loads. 

Under the present form of organisation ani operations, it is not possible 
to: 

to 






Accurately determine the cos •ojects.. 

(b) Pinpoint responsLbilil 

(c) Ascerta taff size die a no . load* 
Thoroughly determine the total costs of various engineering services.. 
Develop in depth,, appropriate engineering skillr 

(f) flan programs, n id costs, other than on a 

short-term bas. 

All of these factors ostly opera tion,. 

Findings 

The most effective and efficient er rganizaticn is governed by 

such things ■- 

(a) The nature of the work. 

(b) The number of siroultaneou 

(c) The relative size and pressure of the project 

(d) The uniqueness of th 

(e) The area? of common or overl 

(f) The by and t 

Of the two basic types of organization structure, process (funcv 

(project), process de ition offers greater opportune 

for economy through specialization, whereas purpose departmentalize 
leads to ; ainment and lower costs than does pro© 

the site of the 01 marginal advantages accruing 

to process de rough specialization becomes 

while co-ordination costs become ir. e balance of net 

efficiency shifts tion as the 

organization increase 

However* neither a simple purpose (project) nor a straight process ( I 
organization is most efficient fa- - of engineering org.-v 

in terns of cost and performs eria. As a rule^ a composite orgi 

ization is usually developed with seme functional, and some project : 
depending upon relative important he organization. 

Over the years, engineering in the City has continued to operate la: 

a pure process (function) organization.. There has been little utilizati 

of some form of pu 

jte ccanme re lation s 

I All engineering forces should alized to provide a composite 

structure which will incorporate the appropriate degr. 
(function) and purpose (project) activities, such that maxi 
may be derived by the City and County of San Francis-: 



cull icer 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WOHKS 



II This centralization will consolidate, in the present Department of 
Public Works or as a separately constituted department, all engin- 
eering functions now performed by the Bureau of Engineering, Bureau 
of Architecture and the Public Utilities Commission,, including the 
Water Department , 

III This centralized engineering function should be constituted as 

defined on the organization charts included in this section of the 
reportj and 

IV All personnel in this newly consolidated organization should be 

physically housed at one location, namely, at a new building at the 
Army Street location <, 



Conclusions 

1. Some specialized engineers, in the various engineering functions, 
cannot be included in the proposed centralization plan because of 
their close activity relationship with daily operating functions. 

2. Considerable analytical study and an extensive transitional period 
will be necessary, before the proposed integration and centralisation 
can be fully implemented. 

3» The present total engineering staff consists of approximately hhO 

positions with a gross annual payroll of about $h» 500,000, including 
fringe benefits. It is conservatively estimated that a 1%% direct 
reduction in manpower will be effected by the proposed centralization, 
at a saving of about $675>0OO per year. An additional three per c 
of this payroll will, be saved as a result of intangibles not appa: 
at this depth of investigation, but known by experience to exist. 
These intangible savings consist of better co-ordination, liaL son 
communications: improved hand-to-hand exchanges of detail, paper pro- 
cessing and personal contact; general upgrading of efficiency; aJl 
which will produce additional savings of approximately $33 5,000 per 
yssTo 

h» The gross annual savings to the City and County of San Francisco will 
therefore be about- §810,000 on a continuing and recurring basis. 



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DEPART MENT OF PUELIC HEALTH 

A. San Francisco General Hoar ■' 

Introduction 

Administrative Division 

Director of Admissions 53 

Maintenance Division 

Dietetic Division 6l 

Housekeeping Division 63 

Medical Records Departjnsnt 66 

Professional Divici 75 

BXood Bank Unit 
Medical Division 
Psychiatry Unit 
Electrocardiogram Unit 
Dental Unit 

Radiology Department (X-Ray Unit) 
General Hscommendations 

Kursing Division 

Central Supply floeisi 

Surgery Section 

Chest & Cormnunicable Diseases Section 

Out-patient Section 

Director of Nurses and Office Section 

General Recoznraandations o~ 

B* Hassler Health Hon© 

C Emergency Hospital Services 

D* Bureau of Food and Sanitary Inspection 



PUBLIC 



DEPARTMENT 0? 1TJELIC HEALTH 

A. SAN FRANCISCO GENERAL HOSPITAL 

nUCTION 

The San Francisco General I' epital established in 1&$Q with its 
present capacity of about 900 b«da provides outstanding medical care 
to the indigent sick« 

In foimer years the Eospit- 1 operated under extreme difficulties 
in shabby rundown facilities; heaver, in recent years through the 
Capital Ir-sproverasnt Program, fbt $0 year old buildings have been par- 
tially remodeled into working raas suitable for modem medical prac- 
tice. The construction progrr is continuing and trill require an 
additional three or four years 1» complete. A visit in an old ward 
immedie tely followed by an inspi.ction of a remodeled ward will quickly 
convince the viewer of the effectiveness of the work completed. 

The administration and staif of the Hospital are performing their 
•work with interest and enthusic, ! a. Many have long years of service and 
are to be commended for their efforts often performed under trying cir- 
cus tsnees. 

We believe that items appearing in the newspapers have in many in- 
stances highlighted only the negsoive or unsatisfactory side of a con- 
dition to the almost total exclusion of the fine accomplishments in 
medical care., 

It is our hope that the recoi emendations contained in this report 
will be interpreted accordingly* 

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION 

Findings 

Ihe Administrative Division of the San Francisco General Hospital 
consists of the following sections: Accounting, Offico, Personnel. 
Purchasing-Stores s and Telephone-Information, with a staff of about 
3$ persons, 

Bacommanda tions 

1» Analytical Assi stant 

A business Vpe analytical position should be established 
with adequate stature to prov3.de the hospital management with 
directional administration recommendations based upon special 
studies and investigations. 



51 



CHEEP ADMEKLSTE&IXVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 



Make this position responsible to the Assistant Superintendent, Admin- 
istrative, to undertake comprehensive analytical and other special 
studies as determined by the hospital administration. Assign to the 
respective operating supervisors, the implementation of any resulting 
recommendations and the development of any detailed procedures or 
methods. The size and complexity of hospital administration and 
operations definitely warrants the appointment of such a high level 
administrative assistant. It would also be advisable to analyze the 
office detail workload on the Assistant Superintendents Administration, 
to determine the type and amount of office service which should be 
provided. 

A methods and procedures analysis directed toward greater mechan- 
ization, reduction and simplification of cost accounting, personnel 
clerical, budget preparation, and related activities should be made. 
This analysis should also include the work involved in the yjreparation of 
any related records and reports which may be used for administration pur- 
poses, particularly for budget control. 

3. Sndgeter^^Cost^e^oui^ing 

The desirability of combining the budgetary activities with the cost 
accounting work, due to the general similarity, should be considered. 
At the present time, the budget work and personnel or payroll work 
combined in one position, If centralised tabulation equipment is fully 
utilized as recommended in otter sections of the report, maximum app- 
lication should be made in this particular area of the Administrative 
Division. It was observed that present application of regulations 
regarding the obtaining of qualified employments is placing a handicap 
on the operations of the cost accounting section. 

The practicability of combining ths revenue cashier activities and 
patients' personal property custodial activities (revenue clerk, cus- 
todian clerk and stenographer clerk) and transferring the revenue and 
custodial duties out of the cost accounting group to the Administrative 
Office section, or to the Billing Section should be considered. Th 
functions are disruptive to the cost accounting activities and do not 
appear to be appropriate. 

In connection with the patients' personal property custodial duties, 
examine the protective methods that are presently in effect to assure 
adequate auditing controls, proper security equipment and methods,- 
the means in effect to assure personnel individual responsibility in 
handling patients 1 property and cash. 



The Pir chasing-Stores Section clerk-typist activities should be 
examined to determine the possibilities of greater mechanization and 
to evaluate the possibilities of assuming a greater share of the 
clerical x-rorkload now performed by the General Storekeeper. 

$2 



•■ OP PUBLIC B 



The General Storekeeper has a substantial responsibility In the purchasing 
activities and can profitably use maximum freedom from clerical detail work. 



The informational reference "Cardex" and other patient listing 
equipment in the Telephone-Information Section used in connection with 
general receptionist activities should be reviewed. Much of this in- 
formational equipment appears to be very cut-soded and inefficient. 



An office procedural study should be made in the Administrative 
Office Section of the approximately 150 requests per week from the out- 
side, involving study of medieal files and preparation of replies, with 
the objective of simplification or greater use of pre-developed reply 
forms. JU.30 the use of a type of dictaphone* dictation system for this 
office should be investigated . 



piREOTOR OF ASMISS.jOflS 

The Director of Admissions vith a staff of about /& members is respons' 
for administering the institutional procedures dealing with the admission, 
transfer or release of patients and inmates* exercises direct administratix'e 
responsibility for the social service division; determines eligibility for 
admission; determines financial circumstances of persons admitted and is 
responsible for developing, interpreting, coordinating and enforcing exist- 
policies, methods and standards. 

This office i3 a key unit as it governs, and evaluates to a large Qxfcc- 
an applicant's eligibility for admission to San Francisco General Hospital, 
Laguna Honda Home, Has3ler Health Home, Pediatric Clinic, Out Patient Clinic, 
Surgery, or refers cases to other community resources. 

The quarters in the Emergency Section, although recently installed, are 
not very suitable for the Intake Division due to the crowded conditions 
surrounding the reception and waiting area. It is noisy and not very condu- 
cive for interviews which must be held in full view of other applicants. 

There are about SO applicants each day and the present group of social 
workers is having trouble in handling the applicants without considerable delay. 
The information desired often requires careful checking and coupled with language 
difficulties, the social workers can easily spend an hour with an applicant. 
A3 a result ambulatory applicants wait 4 to 8 hours for interviews, and in 
some cases may find it necessary to return the next day. 

It appears that a lack of coordination exists between the Medical Social 
Worker group and the Social Worker- group who handle most of the intake work; 
that some of the office procedures are Inadequate — for example reports, re- 
cords' and that Medical Social Workers are not spending enough time on cases, 
which has a tendency to slow up discharge of patient thereby incurring added 
expense to the C:V 



CED STRATIVE OFFICER 
DEPAKMIT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 

In general, a reorganisation of procedures, assignment of personnel, 
practices, business attitudes and public relations would seea to be in order. 

Recoygaencfetaoq?- 

1. Elioination of .Excessive. Applicant Waiting Period 

The present situation vhich requires applicants to sit for hours 
in "waiting room" fashion should be corrected. 

The addition of 4 eligibility clerks, a new classification, to the 
Intake Division would allow time for better screening and would provide 
better service for the applicants. 

All social workers, and/or eligibility clerks in their group should 
be e:sperieneed and trained in business techniques with parti eular emphasis 
on credit checking and investigative work. Under no circumstances should 
Public Welfare assign social workers for training purposes. 

At least one eoHsercial credit checker or investigator with a business 
background should be assigned to the group for the purpose of screening 
the applications and assisting the social workers and/or eligibility 
clerk3 in obtaining full information especially in regard to insurance. 

All social vorkers and interviewers should be placed on a production 
basi3 covering interviews and follow-up work. 

The director as well as the supervisors should check the operation 
several tiises each day to make sure service is rendered without delay. 
An applicant should be received on entrance and informed of interview 
tiass end any reasonable waiting period. 

2. Discharge, of Pstj.snj>g 

(a) Eliainate rcost eligibility work from duties of Medical Social 
Workers and transfer same to Social Workers, This would enable Medical 
Social Workers to spend more tiiae on ward eases, effecting faster release 
and saving in expense. 

(b) Effect closer relationship between Medical Social Workers and 
Doctors with view toward earlier release of patient and consequent co 
saving to City. It is estimated that savings effected thru application 
of (a) anS (b) would total cpproxireately #50,000.00 psr acnth. 



The Director of Admissions has been asked to work out a Reh&Mlit; 
Program which is not specifically part of his Job. Is view of the ±mpov~ 
tance of this program it is recoaEaended that the Batter be handled as o 
lined in the General section of this report. 



5k 



' OF PUBLIC HEALTH 



4. J233S&2ES 

The intake section should be rearranged so that the reception and 
waiting area is entirely separated from interview area used by Intake 
Division. In this manner interviewers can work more efficiently. In 
addition the Admission Receptionist should be located in full view of 
reception area in order to report any unusual waiting by applicants 
to the Director or Assistant Director for proper action. 

Reports covering interviews are handwritten and serve as part of ths 
permanent record which is frequently used for reference purposes. In ordes 
to save time and maintain a more legible record, it is recommended that 
the Central Telephone Dictation System (described in another section of 
this report) or dictating machines be used. 

Use of addressograph plates would greatly simplify the headings on 
many records and insure more uniformity. Electric typewriters would be 
more practical for the work performed. 

6. E^r.ffiacy,,, Division 

(a) The Booking Steward under Ambulance Section handles cases between 
5:00 p.m. and S;30 a.m. This work should be done by a qualified senior 
clerk or soeial worker on a two-shift basis. This would provide proper 
night coverage, eliminate confusion and assist in public relations. 

(b) Procedure in soma cases involving X-rays should be reviewed. 

In many eases the doctor desires an X-ray and the applicant is not inter- 
viewed by the Social Worker or eligibility worker until this is complete 
-- a lapse of hours. If the case is adjudged an insurance case, the 
applicant is referred to a private doctor. In the meantime the applic 
waits in pain and in upset condition. 

The Billing and Collection Division works closely with the admitting 
services although in separate buildings. It is responsible for determin- 
ing patients' ability to pay for medical services rendered, processing 
medical records and collecting of patient accounts for medical and other 
services. This unit also confers with attorneys and executors of the 
decendents 5 estates to properly identify patient and ascertain ass 
of estate in order to determine feasibility of rendering a medical bill: 
also this unit obtains the assignment of insurance benefits for patients 
who have received msdical care — ■ also the release of liens upon settle- 
ment of accounts. 

The importance of this unit can be recognised by t'.»e fact that total 
collections amounted to approximately £200,000 in 19$3 snu £l 3 I00 5 000 in 
1959-60 » This substantial increase is 6v.& principally to three factors -» 
(l) - Increase in rates; « (2) more persons covered ly health insurance; 
(3) - more efficient methods and follow-up in billing and collections o 
The Supervisor is doing a fine job in effecting collections in an 
economical and intelligent manner and his efforts are very commendable. 



'.iJAlI 



We believe the adoption of the following recommendations would im- 
prove the operations of the division and increase its effectiveness; 

a. Quarters - Present space is entirely too crowded for proper function- 
ing. This condition can be easily corrected by extending the office over 

a little used driveway area. 

b. Staff — In 1952-53 there -were five employees in this division and 
now there are seven. While the number of bills issued has increased 
120$, the insurance claims filed have increased 110$ and the collections 
have increased 503J5, the work force has increased only UQ%. In order 

to handle the increased volume and to relieve the Supervisor of perform- 
ing detail clerical work, we believe the staff should be increased by 
one General Clerk Typist. 

c. The Assessor's office should furnish this unit with an alphabetical 
list of property owners which would assist in establishing liens, 

d. A few insurance companies have a tendency to refuse paynssnt of 
bills presented on the basi3 that it is a County or free service. It is 
suggested that principals of these insurance companies be individually 
called and informed that the City expects them to honor their contracts. 
Resulting additional collections estiiaated at #10,000.00 a year. 

e. This unit would benefit to a large extent if the accounting was 
done on a centralised tab system, as their cost figures could be obtained 
more readily thereby providing a taore realistic rate structure. 
Present system would be aided by use of electric typewriters. 

8. QTjora^ R ation fioron&ttee 

In order to achieve considerable econoBd.es and to prevent losses 
through the proper and efficient enforcement of admittance eligibility re- 
quirements, the admitting services should be a coordinated unit staffed 
hY experienced personnel. In the initial determination of the form of 
assistance granted an applicant, the admitting personnel can control to 
large extent the cost to be incurred. We recommend that the following 
committee be established for the purpose of analysing the pre 
ation. 

Chairman — Superintendent of Leguna Honda Hoisa 

Assto Supt tt - Medical of San Francisco C- 2 r«rrl Hospital 
Director of Admissions of San Francisco General Hospital 
Billing & Collection Supervisor of S.F* General Hospital 
Director of Clinical Psychiatry of S.F, Goner al Hospital 
Director of Finance and Records 

Arrangements should be made for each of the committee members to be 
temporarily detached from his duties in order that full time could be 
spent in the Admissions Section in reorganising the division* 

The work of th@ commitbee would consist of establishing policies, 
place in effect the above recommendations together *ri.th their own and 
develop a strong, efficient operation* It is estimated that the re- 
organisation work would take about 10 days. If possible^ upon coisple- 
tion of -their work, the comoiittee should remain intact as an advisory 
group to the division ,- 

56 



DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC W 



Ffodipgs; 

The Maintenance Division of the San Francisco General Hospital vith a staf: 
of about 34-, is responsible .for the operation and maintenance of equipment 
and the routine maintenance and repair of all buildings vithin the hospital. 
complex, exclusive of the janitorial activities. 

This activity includes the operation of all steam generation and trans- 
mission systems and all mechanical and electrical work connected vith the 
operation of various structures, including elevators, sewage and vator dis- 
tribution systems i It receives and processes complaints or requests con- 
cerning the maintenance a*ad repair of all buildings in addition to attempt- 
ing to conduct a reasonable preventive maintenance program involving some 
20,000 individual items of miscellaneous equipment. 

The present maintenance staff is comprised of the same numbers of 
craftsmen (total available man hours) as were eniployed vhen the hospital 
vas first completed in 1915~l6j in spite of the fact that a tremendous 
amount of new and additional equipment has been installed during the last 
-45 years. 

Maintenance requirements have increased greatly, while the staff has 
remained static. The un-eeonomicsl practice of deferring maintenance of 
buildings and equipment has resulted in compounding corrective costs which 
have to be borne by expensive bond issues primarily Intended for improvements , 
A3 a result, the division's work is mainly emergency b;r nature. Neglect 
maintenance, brought about ~by a lack of appropriated funds and adequate sta 
has created a state of disrepair that is proving extreirxjly costly/ 

In spite of these major obstacles, the present staff has done a re- 
markable job of holding together a physical plant of this magnitude. Their 
dedicated and conscientious attitude is to be corsssanded. 

It is of the utmost importance that authorities give proper consider- 
ation to the wisdom of preserving all public facilities, especially this in- 
stitution which plays such a vital role in the general health and welfare of 
the community, 

1. Maintenance Staff 



The kinds and quantity of work performed by maintenance personnel 
directly reflect the quality level of any preventive maintenance prog: 
If the quality level of maintenance i3 low, there is a greater incic 
of emergency repair work with higher attendant costs. Aside from the 
inconveniences and sometimes hazardous consequences experienced, the hi 
cost of making emergency repairs usually is far greater than the salarj 
of additional personnel needed to sustain an adequate preventive mainten- 
ance program of reasonable quality. 



S? 



EMINISTR&TI7E OFFICER 
L^fiTT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 



is estimated that -with a reasonable preventive maintenance program in 
jration, emergency repair -work should not exceed 15^ of the total maintenance 
fort. In the case of San Francisco General Hospital, because an adequate 
igsra®. and staff is lacking, emergency repairs constitute 60$ of the total work 
!brt. 

It is recommended that a preventive maintenance program be developed for 
.s facility, giving proper consideration to the cost of achieving a proper 
lie of routine to emergency work and that an adequate staff be provided to 
►form the work. This re commendation places further emphasis on the need for 
.Iding Maintenance and Repair Centralisation described in detail in the sec- 
>n of this report dealing with the Bureau, of Building Repair. 

jteagrti-P^-Q f S omp 3- a ^Pfr? 

A uniform procedure for reporting trouble with equipment or for other 
repairs should be established. The present haphazard means by which the 
maintenance division receives complaints, creates confusion and in some 
cases the delay in reporting causes extensive da-sage to other facilities. 
For example, cases of leaking or faulty plumbing have not been reported 
promptly with the result that walls and ceilings have suffered materially 
from unnecessary water damage entailing farther costly repairs. 

It Is Recommended That: 

(a) A uniform procedure be developed for making complaints to the main- 
tenance division on all needed repairs of a routine or emergency nature. 

I (b) Since the need for repairs develops on a 24 hour basis, complaints should 
be mads to a single location where a staff is maintained on all three 

lifts. Because of the noise in the power plant and also because tele- 
phones at that location are frequently unattended, the receiving center 
for repair complaints should be established in tfc.e Messenger Center. 

: (c) Emergency repair complaints receive preferred attention and be relayed 

immediately to the maintenance supervisor by telephone or special messenger 
if necessary. Personnel In the Messenger Center should be trained to screen 
calls to properly determine the urgency of the ecmp.laint. 

(d) A simple complaint form be developed to record the time, location and 
nature of the complaint, indicating the name of the person reporting the 
same. This form to be forwarded to the maintenance division by regular 
messenger service. 

(e) The complaint tag be filled out in duplicate to provide the following advan- 
tages: 

(1) Enable the maintenance supervisor to schedule the work and analyse 
backlogs. 

(2) Provide the workman with a means of reporting action vsken to effect 
repairs and of accou ar his tiBs. (Various mean* are eurre; 
employed by workman to log time, particularly wh»re int^x-departmental 
personnel are conceited) . 



CHIi 
DEF OF PUBLIC HEA] 

(3) Provide an effective means of following up reported complains. 

(f) All staff members receive proper notification on the procedures to be 
followed when reporting cases of routine or emergency trouble. Special 
enjphasis should be placed on prompt reporting. 

Shift Work - Maintenance 

Maintenance work is currently performed only on the day shift. Peak 
usage of many important pieces of equipment occurs during the day which prc~ 
hibits the de-activation of this equipaent for proper servicing. This re- 
sults in substandard preventive maintenance practices and eventually causes 
unnecessary, costly repairs with unreasonable delays and greater inconvenience. 

Future reorganisation of maintenance activities, as outlined elsewhere 
in the section of this report dealing with the Bureau of Building Repair, 
should provide for scheduling some maintenance work on at least the "swing" 
shift and to also provide coverage on Saturdays and Sundays. Routine scheduling 
and rotation of personnel will eliminate the necessity of overtime payment. 

Budget Requests - Materials. & Supplies 

The present budgeted amount for miscellaneous Tsaterials and supplies 
incidental to the maintenance of the entire San Francisco General Hospital 
complex is totally unrealistic. This amount is intended to cover oil mat- 
erials and supplies needed for routine maintenance of plusbing, eleetrieal 
steam and many other items in the physical plant. It ha3 been demonstrated 
year after year that many supplemental requests for funds are initiated and 
approved to augment the original budgeted amount. This practice creates a 
tremendous amount of additional time in estimating, arbitrating and pro- 
cessing needs that are already apparent. Individual craft units are con- 
tinually involved in a struggle to "make do 57 with obvious short quarterly 
allowances and it is apparent that the total personnel effort in the o\'er-all 
activity is costing more than an initial realistic budget allowance. 

It is recommended that approving authorities recognise requests for 
these which have been proven hy past experience to be essential. 

Renovati on of Hospital Bui ldings 

Renovation of hospital structures, where extensive interior modemiza- 
tion is to be accomplished, should include work on all features which are 
integrally associated with the remodeling. 

For example this kind of work is currently in progress in Building No, 
60, the Tuberculosis Ward, yet no provision was made for the rehabilitation 
or replacement of the obviously badly deteriorated wood sashes which were 
installed when the building was constructed in 1919. Deferring replacement 
of such items is false eeonomy, Continual repairs will have to be made to 
these sashes until they ultimately are replaced at r contract price 
thar- if they had bson included in the present 



59 



DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 



It is recomusQi 1 future mod da based on sound: 

planning to accomplish a complete job -within the limits of available funds, 
rather than spreading funds thinly to cover acre areas and in so doing ignor- 
ing essential work. 



A. In an institution the siae of San Francisco General Hospital, greater 
latitude should be penal tted iaai ntenance personnel to encourage standard- 
ised use of many items such as valves, faucets, steam ti'aps, etc. The 
present system of purchasing many varieties of these Items causes a good 
deal of extra work and adaptation. Also many delays are experienced when 
substitute materials are furnished and cannot be used. 

B. The policy of purchasing items solely on price should be reviewed. Fre- 
quently, lover cost, untested equipment is furnished which cannot be fully 
adapted for proper use or mast be extensively modified or rebuilt after 
being in operation a limited time. 

G. The long established purchase order limitation of $15 should be raised to 
allow maintenance personnel to readily purchase urgently needed small 
Items, the cost of vhich has been continually rising. 



Because a better activity relationship exists for more efficient use of 
skilled manpower, materials, supplies end equipment, the following organization- 
al changes should be made: 

A, Transfer jurisdiction of the gardening unit, consisting of 1 Gardener 
Foreman and 7 Gardeners, to the Recreation and Park Depai'traent. 

B. Combine plumbing and stesmfitting personnel and shops into one vor" 
unit. 

.Fillj-p^ Retdree s^q sitloiis, 

On-the-job training of replacements for retiring employees 3 p03iti ; 
for a reasonable pericd of time px*ior to actual retirement, is absc 
essential to accomplish a smooth transfer of duties without disruption of 1 
department's activities. This practice is extremely important where key or 
high level positions are involved. 

In the maintenance section of San Francisco General Hospital, the sir- 
position of Hospital Instrument and Equipment Mechanic (old title — Bracemdcer) 
is a very important and unique position which requires the services of a 
talented and capable Individual. The incumbent is approaching retirement 
age and to adequately fill his position, a successor must be found who po3sss 
a great deal of imagination, ingenuity and resourcefulness as veil as a \ 
variety of manual skills related to many crafts. Even if a successor hr 
these qualifications is found, three months of on the job training would not 
be enough time to effect a smooth transition. 

For positions like this, of extreme importance to the hospital, and 
other positions of similar importance throughout government, a policy which 
will provide for on the job training of replacements prior to the actual 
retirement of the lECuabent is essential. 



Time cards should be forwarded daily to the Department of Public Works 
by employees on interdepartmental assignment, through the central city-wide 
mail service proposed in another section of this report. The present system 
depends on two timekeepers picking up these card3 at many locations through- 
out the city and whose positions were rocojmasnded for elimination in the 
section of this report which deals with the Bureau of Street Cleaning. 



Findings; 

The Dietetic Division of the San Francisco General Hospital, with a staff 
of about 95, is responsible for the preparation and service of food to all patients 
and to hospital employees on duty. 

The Food Service Section, more properly called the Special Diet Section, 
is under the supervision of a Chief Dietitian and is manned by over 25 employees. 
This section actually prepares and serves special diets to over 20$ of -fche 
hospital patients. 

The Food Preparation Section is under the supervision of an Administra 
Chef, and is manned by about 70 employees. This section actually prepares and 
serves over 3,500 meals each day to non-diet patients and on-duty employees. 

More than 50% of the Dietetic Division consists of Kitchen Helpers. 30$ 
of the Division consists of Cooks Assistants (11), Kitchen Helpers (52), Waitre: 
(3) and Counter Attendants (12) . Inasrmeh as the pay scale is exactly the same 
for the following classifications: Kitchen Helper, Waitress, Porter, Orderly and 
not too much different for- Counter Attendants (on the down side) and Licensed 
Vocational Nurse, Senior Orderly, Porter Sub-Foreman (on the upside), it appears 
that there may be over classification of similar type skills. This situation ca> 
result in a tendency to minimise flexibility of nursing services to the patients 
as well as minimize the opportunities for efficient and cost conscious scheduling 
of personnel. 

To the credit of this Division, it saist be stated that, in spite of certain 
gaps in essential equipment and the cumbersome geographic layout of the San 
Francisco Hospital, food preparation and food service is carried on with effici: 
dispatch, cost consciousness and patient oriented administration. 

Food preparation and food service at San Francisco General Hospital, Laguna 
Honda Home and Hassler Health Home are elements of hospital administration that 
the citizens of San Francisco have every reason to praise. 



Chief - Dietetic Division 

Because there appears to be a very practical and workable operating 
relationship between the current Chief Dietitian and the current Administr;: 
Chef, it is recommended that the position, Chief, Dietetic Division, not be 
filled at present nor until administrative, operating, and management probl; 
tend to involve the Assistant Superintendent, Administrative to a much great 
degree than at present. 

61 



.TIVE OFFICER 
DEI. . OBLIG HEALTH 



Diet Chef 



In excess of 20$ of the hospital patients require special diets. This 
cooking is handled separately from the rest of the hospital cooking. For 
nearly 3 years the top cooking position has not been filled on an official 
basis. The position is currently classified as "Cooks Assistant" and it 
appears that it should be classified as n Cook n or "Diet Chef". This position 
has been vacant for over two years and the ;job is currently being performed 
by an employee classified and paid as a Kitchen Helper. Prompt steps should 
be taken to certify an individual to the top position to correct this unfair 
situation. 



All bads should bs equipped • ~bed tray tables, such as are now 
in use in the remodelled wards. Without these, patients are forced to eat with 
a hand tray on their lap or be fed by a nurse, because they are unable to 
control their trays. Lack of these over h&d tray tables means that nurses 
spend too much time serving and feeding patients, especially the older and 
chronie ones. This lack of proper tray equipment also prohibits giving 
greater current considei'atios to serving food in individual, heat containing 
units direct from the main or diet kitchens to the individual patient. 



All hospital personnel, whether handling food or not, should be required 
to pass the same physical examinations and tests required for techniques 
employes by food handlers and practice the same standards of cleanliness. 
This would be an additional step toward greater interchange of personnel of 
similar skill and pay status and the eventual scheduling of patient 
to more normal times (3:00 a.m. - 12:00 noon - 6:00 p.m.) vs. those cu: 
in use (7:00 a.m. - 10:30 a.m. - 3:30 p.m.). 



There is need for additional supervision in the dining room. Current 
there are 15 employees (12 Counter Attendants and 3 Waitresses) all offiei-:- 
reporting directly to the Administrative Chef. Floor leadership is rot: 
among the more responsible personnel, but this arrangement is actually only a 
temporary unofficial expedient. Recommend that one of these positions be re- 
classified to provide official supervision of this group of employees, i.e., 
"Senior Waitress", "Senior Counterman", Dining Room Supervisor". 

Position Titles 

The position "Junior Chef" should be redesignated as "Production Chef* 
or "Operations Chef" to more truly describe this responsibility and to cles 
differentiate it from the role of the Administrative Chef. 



62 



. -JUIxL 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 



7» Compensation 

We belie?© salary inequities may exist in the following jobs and that 
their compensation relationships should be studied: 

Administrative Chef $25.10/dey 
Junior Chef 20.80 

Cook 19*25 

Cook* s Assistant 15*75 
Kitchen Helper 15.35 

Counter Attendant 13*hO 

(a) The Butcher j working under the supervision of 
the Administrative Chef, is paid &L.10 per day 
saore than his supervisor, ($26.20 vs, $25.10). 

(b) The Junior Chef, as operations head, supervises 
8 Cooks and is paid 01„55 per day snore than the 
Cooks. 

(c) The Cook's Assistant position is considered a 
promotion to supervisision of Kitchen Helpers 
and is paid 5# an hour mora than those super** 
vised. 



HOUSEKEEPING DIVISION 



Findings 



The principal functions of this division, with- a staff of 253 $ is 
to provide housekeeping and institutional services connected therewith. 
These include Janitor and Miscellaneous services performed eg -x^erc,; 
Linen Service, which includes the Laundry Unit, a Sewing Room, and the 
Marking and Distributing Unit; Messenger Service; Protection sad Patrol 
Services performed by Watchmen; Custody of used equipments and Custody 
of Patients* clothing and personal effects. 

rogters. This section is staffed by 181 porter positions, includ- 
ing h General Porter Foremen and 16 Sub~?oremen. Of the 
161 Porters, some 101 porter positions are janitorial in nature, the 
remainder perform miscellaneous services. These include assignments to 
the Messenger Service, Laundry, Laboratories, Storeroom, Pharmacy; others 
pick up garbage, deliver ice to "the wards and psrform a variety of other 
activities. Porters are not permitted to transport food. Ward porters 
work generally from 6s30 a.m. to 3O0 p*m. There ara a few night shifts. 

Cleaning material is ordered once a wek from the Main Storeroom. Each 
Sub-Foreman has a basement storeroom in various buildings from which 
material is issued to the Porters. 



63 



DEI. 0? PUBLIC HE/ 



Linen Service . This division is staffed with hk employees, plus 
2 Porters assigned as laundry assistants and one 
Porter as night janitor in the Laundry Unit. Soiled laundry is picked 
up from chutes 3 times a day, is transferred to sorting rooms and then 
to washers. Soiled linen is also received from Hassler Health Home 
(talco a week) and from the City Clinics (once a week). Completed 
laundry is delivered to -the Distribution Unit. Laundry received from 
the Isolation Wards is cashed separately. Itecords indicate that in 
January 1961 a total of ii36,033 pieces ware processed. 

The laundry unit works 6 days a week, Monday 'through Saturday, but 
due to Civil Service regulations which allow employees 2 consecutive 
days off per week, only a skeleton crew is on duty on Saturdays and 
Mondays. This causes a serious shortage of clean linen on weekends, 
holidays and Mondays. 

It was reported that the present supply of linen, especially sheets, 
towels, gowns and blankets is entirely inadequate, resulting in too 
frequent washings and consequent rapid deterioration. 

Linen is supplied to the "Wards on basis of daily requisitions received 
in the Distribution Unit. The quantity requested by the IJards is fre- 
quently arbitrarily reduced by 30 to $<fp 3 depending upon the supply 
available and -fee number of patients in the Ward, which is indicated on 
the requisition. This arbitrary reduction causes a serious shortage of 
linen in the VJards at times* 

Messenger Service . This division was established in December 195? 
and is supervised by a Clerk- Typi3t (female), 
classified as Messenger Center Supervisor. She is assisted by l£ Porters, 
one of whom has been reclassified as Junior Clerk. Based upon the actual 
work performed hy this employee, the need for- the reclassification is not 
apparent e 

The division performs messenger services for all divisions of the San 
Francisco General Hospital, except the handling of food. Pick-ups • 
delivQries are made either routinely or upon special calls. In addition 
it serves as the receiving and distributing center for all incoming end 
outgoing mail. The division does not handle postage stamps nor is it 
equipped with a postage metering machine. Official outgoing mail requir- 
ing postage is delivered twice daily to 101 Grove Street,, 

Records maintained indicate that this division received 233, Oli? routine 
and special calls during the fiscal year ended June 30, I960, and that 
1fce cost of operating this division was &95>,000, or an average of .ii0?6 
per call. 



61; 



CHIEF ADS 
DEPAR3MEHT OF PUBLIC HEA 



P rotection and Patrol Service . Patrol sendees are provided only 

at night, 7 days a week, by 10 
watchmen working two shifts. Four work from ^:00 p.m. to midnight, three- 
three from midnight to 8:00 a.m. !Ihe one interviewed makes 3 rounds 
in 8 hours and clocks in at lli stations during each round. .All 
are inside the buildings. He has covered the same area for $ years. 
Areas and shifts are selected by the watchmen according to seniority. 
Watchmen are not armed . Biey file daily written reports, noting &rrj 
unusual occurrences , 

Cu stody of ft sad_ Equipment. Surplus used equipment for wards and 

offices is stored in the basement of 
the administrative building. Primarily such equipment consists of beds 
removed from wards now under reconstruction. Such equipment is being 
held for re-allocation or replacement. Equipment having no further 
useful value is reported to "the Purchaser of Supplies for disposition 
in accordance with prescribed procedure. 

Custody m of Patients ; ClotM ng_snd_ Pargpng-l-. Effects . Patients' 
clothing and personal effects, other ths&i money or jewelry, are stored 
in 3 storerooms <. The main storeroom is located in building 30 3 
smaller ones are located in the T.B. building and the Psychiatric 
building respectively. Clothing, etc. is inventoried at time of 
patient 1 s admission to the hospital, one copy of which serves as -. 
patient's receipt end also indicates the patient's acknowledgment of 
correctness. 

All clothing is sterilised and transferred to the storeroom for st- 
age in bags or lockers. She procedure appears adequate and the store- 
room is well maintained by a Sub-Foreman Porter. 

Claims for missing articles are investigated by the General Service 
Manager,, Usually it is found that articles were not inventoried and 
therefore remained in the ward. 

Recommendations 

lo P orters . 

Additional mechanical equipment is needed to perform a more 
efficient 30b of cleaning, such as floor polishers, floor scrubbers, 
rolling scaffolds and wet and dry pick-up vacuum cl 
ample, there are 16 crews (Sub-* Foreman areas) with only llj flc 
scrubbing machines of which one is usually in the shop for repairs, 
A small battery powered scrubbing machine would cost approximately 
$1,800. 

Employment of permanent instead of 90 day and limited tenure personnel 
would greatly reduce the heavy turnover. 

In-service training should be provided. 

65 






2» Linen Service . 

The present physical facilities of the laundry unit limit the placing 
of additional equipment to increase much needed output. Services pro- 
vided for Hassler Health Home and the City Clinics could possibly be -per- 
formed at the Laguna Honda Home. Establish a linon control system xfhich 
should include a count of the daily laundry items received from and isr. 
to eachwards in addition, a complete simultaneous inventory should be- 
periodically at unscheduled times. 

Hie current inventory of linen should be substantially increased. 

The Civil Service rule should be amended to permit "staggering" of days 
off throughout the week instead of 2 consecutive days off. Shis would 
greatly improve the operations of the laundry unit, 

The laundry Superintendent reports a serious personnel problem in the 
lower employee classifications due to frequent absences, but discip! 
ary action is rarely instituted. 3his should be done. 

3» Passenger Service. 

The quantity of outgoing mail requiring postage does not justify 
installation of a postage metering machine. However t for the convei 
of the Hospital's personnel, a stamp vending machine should be installed, 
also a U. S. mail box, both to be located in the vicinity of the Mess- 
enger's quarters. 

It is further recommended that the installation of a modern pneyaatic 
tube system be explored. Such an installation would eliminate most of 
the personnel in this division. Please refer to another section of 
report for further details on the subject. 

I4. Protection and Patrol _§sr?iee3. 

It is suggested that the present watchmen services be conrerte 
an armed uniformed security force who would be charged with tS 
ibility of protecting the entire plant both inside and outside 
buildings . 

MEDICAL H&ORBS DEPARTMENT 
Foreword 

Central Hedical Records Unit 



Accreditation hy the. "Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals" 
places the matter of completed medical records ac a m: --.it. 
In -she light of the condition of the Medical Records observed bg 
task force during the survey of the San Francisco General Hospital, it 
was deemed advisable to undertake a special review. 



66 



Accordingly, because of the magnitude of the problem, additional 
attention ws3 devoted to the full operations, manpower and causes of 
the current incomplete condition of the records of the Medical Records 
Unit. The survey report section included herewith, is in considerable 
detail and presents the results of a methods, procedures, manpower and 
equipment type analysis. 

Findings.^ General 

The principal work of the Medical Records Departeent is to receive, 
process and file the Jfedical Chart records of discharged patients. Hie 
record must be assembled and evaluated by quantitative analysis of treat- 
ment and technical data recorded to determine if it meets the qualifica- 
tion requirements established by the Joint Commission on Accreditation 
of Hospitals* Accuracy and completeness of coding must be checked with 
the Standard Nomenclature of Diseases and Operations and then indexed 
in accordance with "fee diseases and operations coded on index card file, 
5he chart record is then filed on shelf fil©3 in accordance with a single 
unit numbering system . 

The department maintains daily admission and discharge procedures; com- 
piles and issues statistical data and reports regarding admission, dis- 
charges and daily census; searches medical records for special Gr- 
and information as requested by authorised parties; records and controls 
court dispatches of medical record charts and maintains the tumor registry. 

However, the primary purpose and objective of this essential and vital 
facility is to maintain medical records immediately available to ms 
future emergency, and treatment requirement of discharged patients; 
protect the reputation of the staff; provide pertinent reliable medical 
histories for instruction, training and research, It is of vital im- 
portance to the hospital and to -the City their records be maintained 
in a manner that will meet the full requirements of the Joint Committee 
on Accreditation of the American Medical Association and the American 
Hospital Association, and as an aid to good management and future 
planning « 

The Medical Records Department is staffed by a Senior Medical Records 
librarian, three Medical Egcords Librarians, five Clerk-typists and 
two Clerks * The Senior Ifedical Records librarian is directly respons- 
ible to Dr. T. A. AlberSj Superintendent, San Francisco General Hospital. 
Three members of the staff are Registered Records librarians and Members 
of the American Association of Medical Records Librarians. 

As a result of understaffing, the Senior I-fedical Records Librarian serves 
as relief Clerk for members of Ms staff when they a re absent. He also 
represents the San Francisco General Hospital as Custodian of records on 
all court cases and depositions. During the first quarter of the year, 
court appearances average 28 per month. This and relief Clerk requi: 
ments substantially reduces the Department Supervisor's effectiveness. 



67 






Maintenance of 

of the Medical Becords Department, Elimination of the Clerk-typist 
assigned full time to this required activity as a part of the Sfedical 
Records Staff reduces the organisation to ten. 

ftie 2000 hour backlog of unfiled, uninspected Medical Charts substantially 
reduces the effectiveness of the entire staff due to the necessity to 
eesreh for records and missing files „ Shore is an additional backlog of 
UOCO hours indexing, coding and related work, a total of 6000 hours of 
backlog work.; 

Maimers of the staff have roads substantial improvmsnts in methods and 
simplification of work in certain areas The Medical Records Librarian, 
Court Dispatches and Statistics has coirMned forms and sirplified work 
during the past year, 3he staff has the potential of doing an excellent 
job maintaining the medical records in the Department,, 

.All accredited hospitals consider proper operation and maintenance of the 
Medical Records Department in accordance with standards established by 
the "Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals" of the utmost im- 
portance. Incomplete records ranks second as cause of accreditation 
refusal . 

Apparently San Francisco General Hospital is the only major hospital in 
the BayArea which doesn't meet the standards required for completeness 
of medical records „ !Zhe Administrative and Medical Staff Heads of the 
Hospital are aware of this. Siey have endeavored in many ways tc correct 
the situation. 

Findings - Spec ial - Other Hospitals » 

Saint Francis Memori al Hospital. 

330 Beds - Annual discharges 12,000 

Medical Records Ifeom Staff 9§ 

Registered RRL - Chief Medical Ifecords Librarian in charge . 

Uses unit chart numbering system assigning a new number to each ac" 
Keeps 2 years l&dical Records in file room (2y,000), microfilms after 
years and destroys original chart file. 

Ratio of staff to annual discharges °t to 12,000. 

University of California Medical Cent 



570 Beds - Annual discharges 1$,000 

Medical Records Room Staff kO plus six half-time staff 

3 Medical Records Librarians 

Ratio of Medical Records Staff to annual discharges approximately 3 to 1 
discharges. 



CPUS? AI 
DEPARTi-EOT 0? PU3LIC HEALTH 



Uses single unit chart numbering system cams e rancisco General 
Hospital . 

All chart records from 1937 on file in Ifedical Records Room - 320,000, 
Chart records from 1911t to 193? filed at Bekins Records Center - 
93 s OCO chart histories - records are delivered in 16 minutes if needed - 
Cost &ljOO per year. 

Chart records insist be delirared to the Medical Records Department by 
7 a.m. the day after discharge* 

Quantitative analysis of medical charts must be completed in 30 days. 
Chart records are microfilmed by a microfilm firm in Kansas who special- 
ise in hospital records. Two tapes are made. One is mounted as a milt 
on cards for reference convenience of the staff. The other is stored 
for vital records protection. 

A reference room is provided for visitors authorized to inspect ir<edical 
records. Only members of the Records Department have access to the file 
area. Chart references coverage is provided from 7 a.m. to 12:30 a»m« 
5 days p^T week and 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Saturday and Sunday. 

This Medical Records Department has many tame and labor saving devices 
and methods which csn be used in the San Francisco General Hospital 
Medical Records Department, Many are relatively inexpensive. The 
Senior Medical Records Librarian who arranged for the inspection 
accompanied this consultant. He has a very thorough knowledge of I 
methods and equipment used by this department gained through wide t 
perience and training in some of the finest hospitals in the United 
States. 

All of the major items used to improve efficiency and reduce costs at 
the U.C. Medical Center- Records Department have previously been requested 
by the Librarian for inclusion in hi3 department 7 s 1961-1962 budgets 

During 13ie visits he made notes of many simple devices and ingenious 
methods for improving the efficiency of the single unit filing system 
in his department. The two systems are identical. 

Findings ■* Detail - Present Sjattus 

Incomplete .Quantitative Analysis Medical Qmrt. records backlog; 

(a) A389rrible and inspect charts for completeness - 

Over 1|- years behind - now working September 1959 - 
Approximately 12,000 charts. Average tima to asses 
and inspect 10 minutes per chart. Backlog 1 year work 
for 1 person z 2.000 hours. 

(b) Checking coding for completeness and accuracy end in- 
dexing in accordance with "Standard Nomenclature of 
Diseases and Operations „ R 

Over If years behind - now working September 1959 «> 
Backlog 1 year's work for 1 parson = 2,000 hours. 

69 






(e) fetching chart records received froi red 

file folders « k months in arrears In records room - 
nujnber of chart records retained in two surgical units « 
900 a U months in arrears: 

Total backlog hours - 1 ? 600 hours „ 

In addition • Emergency records dating back to 
November I960 totaling approximately 16 S 500 sheets to 
be sorted alphabetically and filed „ 

A large backlog of X-ray charts remains to be filed., 

Approximate backlog hours (Es • iiOO hours 
Total incomplete medical records 
backlog 5/1/61 -6*000 hours 

Accreditation qualification standards applying to incomplete 
medical records; 

Ideal - Completion of all steps and filing within 21; hours 
after discharge,, 

Alternative - Completion within 10 to 15 days aft large. 

Limit - Completed and filed within 30 days after dischargee, 

Other b acklog work 

(a) Discharge Desk 

15 days in arrears on checking and listing discharge records* 
Normal 3 dgys c 

(b) Front Des k 

Medical Chart Card Charge Out System shows many records 
charged out in excess of a year. 

(c) Chart Files 

Due to understsffing in the Medical Records Department 
pulling and re-filing files for visitor reference is 
almost entirely self-help „ This probably results in 
substantial misfiling end lack of control over chi 
files on shelves . It is estimated 10 per cent of 
records are missing or misfiled, It is difficult 
estimate time required to check present files for 
filing. This is a serious situation. 



70 



mm? &m:: 

IT CF PUBLIC I: 



(d) So cugitjr 

■ corridor doors opening directly file shelf a 
are usually open for necessary •ventilation. For security 
those doors should bo closed and ventilation provided.. 

Under present conditions^ security control of chert files in 
the Ifedical Records Department is impossible . 

Present conditions in the medical records area with so much 
paper unfiled would appear to present a serious fire hasard 
after hours. Siis situation also applies to the basement 
area with the additional hasard of water flooding ■ Smoking 
in the basement area should be prohibited at ail time3 and 
in the Medical Records Room af ter hours. 

( 8 ) Gen eral. St atus .Mattgra 

San Francisco General Hospital Administration has taken many 
measures to correct the conditions described above. Some 
were approved^ osiers are awaiting approval. For example* 
equipment and furniture requested and approved 1960-1961 
Medical Jfeeords Department budget is being delivered not?, 

A letter written November 21 s I960., by the Chairman^ San 
Francisco General Hospital Executive Committee, through 
channels to the City and County Chief Administrative Officer 
described the critical condition of Medical Records Department, 

However s the most critical a spect of the present situation is 
the steady increase in the incomplete records backlog and the 
file storage space situation. All efforts to provide the 
additional manpower necessary to eliminate the backlog and 
maintain the records in accordance with established standards 
have been unsuccessful « 

The space problem is so critical there is no space available 
in the Ifedical Records Department for the normal flow of 'She 
medical charts of discharged patients to the Records Depart- 
ment,, Obviously s this is a situation requiring prompt action. 

Personnel estimates for the Medical Records Departments of 
hospitals of various sizes based on the number of patients 
discharged averages 1 per 1 5 0C0 annual discharges. On this 
basis 5 our weighted estimate for San Francisco General Hos- 
pital is sis in addition to the present staff of eleven 
(which includes tumor registry clerk) to eliminate the backlog , 
In order to provide all of the necessary features of good op- 
eration, these s5-X should be a permanent addition to the 
Departments staff. Eliminating the tumor registry clerk., 
this provides a ratio of 16 to 21 3 000 annual discharges. 

It is also recommended 1 admissions clerk be transferred 
reducing the figure to a net of 11? . 



71 






Findings ■-> Conclusion ! 

First year cost of proposed program to eliminate present backlog 
work, provide proper security and reference service and maintain current 
accession in accordance with accreditation standards is estimated to be: 

Additional Manpower $50,000.00 

Equipment, Supplies, Merofilming, 
rearrangement of Medical Hsccrds 
Department area 50» 000 .00 



Total $100,000.00 



We estimate completion of the program can bs accomplished in one year 
provided no extraneous activities or functions are assigned to medical 
records department staff • 

Thereafter additional annual oparating costs will probably total S50,0C0 
to maintain the department In accordance with normal standards of op 
tioix end service. 

Reeo mmend ations 
!• Space 

a. Provide Records Center storage space for 100,000 of the 300,000 
medical charts stored in the basement records storage area. 

b. Hove ?5,000 of the 150,000 medical charts stored in the Medical 
Records Department work room area to the basement storage. 
This will provide space for additional personnel and for chart 
records of discharged patients retained by wards. 

e. Remove storage shelving occupied by the 50,000 N-serias medical 
charts in the East alcove of the chart room to provide desk 
space for additional personnel required to eliminate the backlog. 

d. Rearrange the Medical Records Department work ares to provide 
best work flow in relation to functional changes resulting from 
adoption of proposed changes in methods, equipment, and f urn:. 
These have been determined and requested, 

e. Provide space and alterations required to establish normal cus- 
tomary security control over access to Medical Records Depart- 
ment file and i-:ork areas and basement storage by visitors. 

This will require additional space which can be used by visitors 
for authorized reference to medical charts,, Under this arrange- 
ment, visitors will not have access to chart file and work areas < 
Space adjacent to the East end of the chart room has been pro- 
posed for this purpose. 

f o Approval of the proposed unit card mounted microfilming of 
medical charts trill eventually recover space for better 
arrangement of the medical chart room. 






Staff 

a. Pro - t; (lerk-typlsts and one file clerk. 
Utilise this addition to the present staff to eliminate 
the 6,000 hours backlog work necessary to couplet© medical 
chart records and maintain current accessions. 

To accomplish this, assign two clerk*- typists to the coding 
and indexing backlog and two clerk-typists to chart com- 
pilation, inspection, and remaining aspects of the quan- 
titative analysis backlog- Utilise the fifth clerk-typist 
to assign relief clerk functions to the most appropriate 
clerk-typist in the present organisation. 

Utilise the file clerk to pull and replace medical charts, 
relieving visitors and medical records librarians of the 
need to perform this lower classified functions 

b. Relievo "the Senior Medical Records Librarian of relief 
clerk functions. Delegate time consuming court cases 
deposition appearances to other qualified mesibers of the 
staff • Consider restricting court appearances to ono dam- 
per week as many private hospitals do. Consider providing 
after hours and weekend file coverage with part- time 
student help,. 

Organization 

a. To enable the Senior Medical Records Librarian to function 
most effectively as supervisor of the Medical Records De- 
partment as described in Class Title Code 3652, delegate 
appropriate lead clerk functions to the three Medical 
Records Librarians $ at present the S.M.R.L. provides 
direct supervision of the entire staff. 

Suggested lead clerk assignments are to assign direction 
of all clerk«typists performixjg quantitative analysis 
functions to the Medical Records Librarian - indexing 
and coding. Also, assign lead direction of the daily 
census clerk-typist to Medical Records Librarian-court 
dispatches and statistics. 

Consider combining lead direction of other related 
activities such as admissions procedures with Medical 
Records Librarian-court dispatches and statistics. 
See proposed organisation chart. 



73 



b, Consider establishing a C ice c 

Conslde — .^.dating certain clerical admission func 

i Medical 
Departments in the central unit. Shis measure will permit 
maximum use of proposed addrss so graph equipment, Admission 
processing time will be reduced from 100 hours per week to IsO. 
Substantial duplicate typing and longhand entry of patient 
admission data will be eliminated at several locations, 

c. transfer the location of the tuaor registry clerk- typist and 
function from the Medical Records Department to the X-ray 
Department,, 

d a transfer the admission procedure clerk- typist to the proposed 
central admission office » 

iio Equipnsent 

Much of the equipment listed below has been requested in the 
1961-62 budget. 

a„ Provide one 9-line grsphotypo plate embossing machine and 
one 9~line addressograph imprinter. Consider providing 
hand imprinters for ward and department us©. 

b<, Provide one Wassail Spring-Bex Card Rotor-File for indexing 
diseases and operations. This Rotor-File wall cut posting 
time to cards in half. It cau be expanded more easily than 
present equipment , 

c. Make contract .arrangements to provide Unit Microfilm Acetate 
Card mounted medical chart records of recent and current 
records as proposed by the Senior Medical Recoi-ds Librarian 
to s ave space and medical s taf f reference time „ Use syst 
similar to U. G. Medical Center- Records Department. 

d. Provide other appropriate equipment items listed in Wob 
Librarian- s letter of October 13, I960, for inclusion in 
the budget for the fiscal year 1961-62. 

8, Provide necessary supplies sueh as, 9|" x 12" Medical Record 
Out Guide to be inserted in place of a medical record when it 
is removed. Ihe existing form should be redesigned to reduce 

COSt a 

f . Provide many of the sorting and filing equipment and supplies 
used by the University of California Medical Center-Records 
Department to improve accuracy and save time. 

5« Summary 

Aside from the original purpose of bringing the Medical Records Unit 
up to an acceptable standard and meeting the requirements of the 
"Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals" it is believed that 
continuing future savings can be effected, 

The savings would bo derived from such things as reduction in staff, 
recovery of space, mechanisation and improved procedures sne 
estimated to total approximately &80,G00 per year. 



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1 - MEDICAL RECORDS 

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chief AMuasnamvE officer 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HSALTK 



PROFESSIONAL DIVISION 



BLOOD BANK 



|lndings 

Bio Blood Bank is currently operating in very limited quarters, 
which are subject to change in the near- future by being relocated in 
a new building. Also, the exploration of alternate contractural 
arrangements such as with 'the Irsin Memorial Blood Bank is under 
consid eration . 

Recommendations 

1. Co ntra ct Basis 

The current consideration of the possibility of contracting the 
blood bank operation to the Irwin Memorial Blood Bank of the San 
Francisco Medical Society should be continued. Under this arrangement, 
a larger number of type distributions of blood would be available. 

The advisability under present operating conditions of providing 
part-time clerical typist assistance in the blood bank to relieve the 
Senior Clinical Technician should be considered. AD. so, due to the 
emergency nature of the activities, the past demands for iramed:'-" 
service should be evaluated for a representative period to determine 
if there is need for more technical help. 

3* Purchasing Procedure 

The purchasing history should be appraised over a representative 
period of time to determine if a simplified and more immediate pur- 
chasing service procedure is advisable. 



MEDIC AL DmslON 



Findings 

The responsibility for medical services rendered patients and 
supervision of post-graduate medical students (residents ar>' 
is provided by the University of California School of Medicine- in 
accordance with a contract. 

75' 



:cer 

LTH 



The professional staff at the Hospital is outstanding; further- 
more, this arrangement results in a considerable saving to the City 
as compared to the emplo^/ment of an equally qualified professionai 
group on a private individual basis. 

Recommendations 



Ho u rs - E mergency Division 



Present shifts are 7:30 p.m. to 5:30 a.m. - 10 hours - 
5:30 a.m« to 7:30 p.m. - lit hours. The heavy volume period is 3sC0 
p.m« to lOsOO p. in., the light volume period is 5:00 a.ru to 9:00 a.m. 

Recommend establishment of three 8-hour shifts (preferable"' 
two 12-hour shifts on a rotating shift basis. One additional intern 
is needed during heavy volume periods 

2. Vacations - Interns 

Present policy does not allow for vacations. In other hospitals, 
interns receive one week paid vacation. This may be a factor in ob- 
taining quality interns, and this policy should be reviewed. 

Varied for interns and residents from 1st to 10th of month* 
Regular pay days should be established as it is important for the 
staff members to receive their compensation promptly. 



PSYCHIATRY UNIT 

Findings 

This unit handles all psychiatric activities of the Hospital, 
including in-patient service, out-patient clinic, occupational therapy, 
social service, consultation service and other related matters. 

The situation in this division requires early attention, part- 
icularly in the observation, aid detention wards where conditions, due 
to overcrowding, are not satisfactory. 

Average intake is 000 admissions per month - about 2$% are 
Hospital bed patients, approximately 33 £ are due to alcohol and about 
lg% are given care elsewhere. The out-patient clinic handles about 
600 visits per month. Program is set up to move patient to the clinic 
as soon as possible!, 



CHIEF ADHTHISTRA- CER 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 



The entire service is in need of improvement and the condition 
has been aggravated by several years of inadequate staffing and hot; sing « 
Lack of space, shortages of personnel and equipment have caused the 
greatest difficulty. 

The professional staff, consisting of a number of loyal and 
conscientious members with several years of service, presently appear 
frustrated due to recent policy changes which apparently are not 
clearly defined. 

Recommen dations 

1. Space 

Two additional wards are needed, at present to handle the volume 
of patients received under the present system. Plans for expanded 
facilities under permanent program should be accelerated* 

2. Additional Personnel 

One doctor and one social worker should be added to the Ad- 
missions Division and three additional ward clerks are needed in 
the wards . 

3« Alcoholics 

The alcoholic admissions present a critical problem and the 
cost to the City is tremendous. For example, at San Franc isco General 
Hospital it is $32.00 per day vs. 82uOO per day at San Bruno alcoholic 
section. To take a typical case, an alcoholic patient is admitted 
for 3 or U days at a cost of approximately $12£*00 and shortly after 
release, is readmitted - again a cost of $125.00 plus court costs. 

The establishment of a work farm (such as the Santa Rita F 
in Alameda County) , under Public Welfare or the Sheriff, with prep 
controls, wox^ld appear to be at least a partial solution. Under this 
arrangement the alcoholic eould be sentenced for a period and would 
be required to work and receive occupational therapy. It is estimated 
that a substantial reduction in costs would result. 

h» Expanded Facilit ies for Treatment of Alcoholics 

If a suitable separate ward type area was available, some of 
the less acute type of alcoholics could be examined by a doctor, given 
medication and a bed for the night. In many cases, the person could 
be released the following morning after another cheek by the doctor* 
This would save time and expense in examining and admitting persons 
to the Hospital. 



77 



Lxt-ua ry 1'acj.xxties 

Provide small psychiatric library for journals or arrange access 
to U. of C Library. 



ELECTROCARDICr-R:!!'' UNIT 



Fi ndings 

The Senior Electrocardiograph Technician interviewee! in this 
division supervises three other 'technicians and one clerk-typist who 
has been in this unit for twenty years. 

The technicians stake daily routine rounds of all medical 
wards, and of surgical and other wards when requested, Electrocardio- 
grams are taken at bedside of patients by means of portable equipment 
on the basis of requisitions issued by doctors* The E.K<,G, f s a.;. 
long strips, each of which is cut into two smaller sections, Cne 
section is stapled to a duplicate chart which remains in the E. i 
Unit for about one year. The doc tor 's interpretation of the gram is 
recorded on both the ward copy and tile file copy. Records indicated 
that during the month of March 1961, 9!& E.X.G.'s were process: 

Rec omme relations 

1, Procedures 

The file copy in the E<,K„G„ Unit is put in boxes snd stored in 
the basement after about one year. This copy should be disposed of, 
as the ward's copy is filed with the patient's history in the Record 
Room* Portable EUKoG^s should be available by section., 

DENTAL^UjGT 

findings 

This Unit is under the direction of a dentist,, assisted b~ 
interns* The efficient operation of this Unit is sev-- ii capped 

by a deplorable lack of space and adequate facilities. It consists 
of one small room containing two dental chairs and an x~ray machine 
and an even smaller ante-room used as an office and for storing 
supplies* 



78 






The dental unit is primarily a surgical unit. Fillic 3th 

is performed 

laboratory work or for general dental services such as repair of 
dentures. X-ray films are taken to Cystoscopy or Surgery for 
development* 

The two dental chairs are too close. If an x~ray is taken- the 
patient in the second chair- is exposed to the rays. A reception room 
is non-existent. Patients must wait in Blood Bank Unit or in 
Admission Division. 

Recommend at ions 

1. Patients R^ 

Patients requiring a complete anaesthesia are now compelled to be 
first admitted to the Hospital as a regular in-patient, remaining two 
days. If a recovery room were available where the patient could be 
watched, the anaesthetic could be given in the dental unit and -the 
patient discharged in a natter of hours > thus saving the cost of two 
days 5 care at an estimated saving of 820,000 per year. 

2* Space - Pe rsonnel 

The number one problem is lack of space. The unit should be re- 
located in adequate quarters and should be provided with a recepti 
room, a laboratory properly equipped, an x-ray room and a recovery 
room. It is also recommended that a qualified Dental Nurse-Receptionist 
be assigned to the Dental Unit in lieu of a licensed Vocational 



R&DIOLCQY DEP ARTMENT (X T MY WLT) 

Findings 

This Unit is under the very capable supervision of a doctor an< 
staff of h£> which includes male and female technicians, orderlies, 
clerical workers and sift doctors- There are no interns* The Unit 
provides 2it-hour service of a very highly specialised nature, indue 
x-ray examinations, x-ray treatments and occasionally radium treat: 

The work load has increased from 35*000 x-ray examinations in 19 !>? 
to 60,000 in fiscal year 1955-60. This increase is not due to an 
crease in sickness but rather due to the complexity of examinations: 
also clue to the fact that San Francisco General Hospital is a teaching 
institution. 



79 



CHT> OFFICER 

DE; »UELIC HEALTH 



Patients are referred to this Unit from four principal sources, 
namely., Admission (Intake) Ward, Wards, Follow-up Clinics, such as 
Orthop/^" " 2 and Surgery, and Chest Clinic. The doctor estimates that 
20 % of patients* other than emergency cases, would probably not have 
x-ray exarrti.riatj.ons if they tjere under the care of private physicians^ 
since complaints cover such ailments as coughs, colds or minor 
injuries. The reason for this appears to be that the examining 
doctors at the Hospital fear legal complications in the event the 
injury or illness is subsequently determined to be more serious than 
the preliminary examination would indicate. 

Recommend ations 

1. Location 

The x-ray department should be closer to Surgery and the Emergency 
Ward since most patients come from Emergency. Also, it sometimes takes 
20 minutes for a child tc be brought to x-ray from the Fediatr 

2. Screening Process 

A better screening process should prevail in the Adraissit 
both with respect to medical and social service. It has been observed 
that the patient load drops when a mature doctor is in attendance at 
intake v 

3- Repair^ Equipment 

Better service should be provided for repair of equipment. The 
time elapsed for repairs is from two weelts to one and one-half months. 
If an x~ray tube "blows", the company which has the contract for re- 
placemera will replace the tube "on lean" until purchase order is 
received. 

h. 220 Volt Power 

Funds should be appropriated to connect the 220 volt wires in 
buildings to the power line. The division has only one porta':" 
unit, purchased at a cost of ^u,O30 which cannot now be ussd in 
wards because power is not available. 

5>. Personnel 

The addition of one or two technicians for duty in the early eve- 
ning hours and re- scheduling of work load would provide better 
utilization of equipment and allow more patients to be x-rayed 
congestion. 



80 



CHIEF AD 
DEPART IL2H 



6. Holders 

The department is badly in need of holders for x-ray films. About. 
20 were ordered one year ago yet none have been delivered. 



More than 2%% of the Senior Clerk-Typist* s time is consumed in the 
preparation of a detailed analysis of the departments daily activities 
in the form of a monthly recapitulation report. For ths month of 
ftarch 19^1, this involved a manual tabulation of over 1?,000 items , 
showing number of patients, examination and films, by wards. The pre- 
paration of this report could readily be accomplished by use of I.B.M. 
cards, releasing this employee for mors important duties. 



RECOMMENDATIONS ~ GENERAL 



1. Staffilfe^ngs 

General medium level staff meetings are not held to discuss adi 
istrative r medical information, policies or problems. Periodic "on call 
staff meetings should be held to create a proper climate for exem. 
information and ideas of this nature. Ihose meetings will improve 
understanding and clarify interpretation of administrative-.medical 
p .licies. 

2« Medical Record s Forms 

Kany necessary forms are used in the preparation and development 
of a patient's medical record file. The same, basic infoimatici 
iating to name, age, sex, etc., is ciirrently filled in by hand 
form. It is recommended that a " charge -a-plate" type imprinter be 
prepared upon admitting the patient and that henceforth this plate 
accompany the patient's record file and be used to imprint 
form added to the record. This practice is similar to those used 
many modem hospitals, including TLC. Hospital* and will save an ii 
estimably large amount of time and manual effort. 

3. Professional Services Billing 

In order to establish a collection procedure for fees reasons' 
due and payable, it is recommended that the following procedure bo 
instituted: 

A. Patients to be billed for professional services be selected as 
is dene in County with the following additions; 






CHIE OFFICER 

TB:' Z HMLTH 



(a) include patients with insrurance policies which cover pro- 
fessional services j and (b) restrict billing to iii-patients. 

B. Billing be done through the exist :l jig Department ox the 

Hospital o 

C* Fees for professional services should be incorporated into the 
general billing at a reasonable rate, i.e., $5-00/day without 
mention of a specific physicians name in the billing. This fee 
should go into the general fund of a non-profit organization of 
the Medical Staff, earmarked for a yearly budget f eg" research 
and education at the S50E. 

D, By resolution of the Board of Supervisors as a result of a 
ruling by the City Attorney, uses of the fund should be 
specially enumerated for: 

(1) Maintenance of the Ifedieal Library. 

(2) Creation and maintenance of a research program, for the 
purpose of scientific medical research and the study 
of other medical problems. 

{ JJ) For any other reasonable and proper disbursement of 
funds that would directly benefit the medical practice 
for those patients for whom San Francisco is legally 
responsible and recommended by the Medical St. 
Advisory Committee. 

E. Disbursements made only on reconanendation of an Advisory Com- 
mittee of the medical staff composed of Chiefs of Services. 

This prceed-cre will provide a much needed professional, service 
dealing with the research aspects of pathology as well as satisfying 
a great need for a medical library, animal shelter for research and 
other valuable needs in this regard. 

Precedents for this billing have been established in serf 
counties, notably, Alameda, San Mateo and San Biego; and for exa 
returns to Alameda County amount to seme $60,000/year. 



MDBSSMQ BIVlSIOS 

CEHTMLJ^LT^ROOM 

Findings 

The operations and functions of the Central Supply Room are supei 
vised hy a Head Nurse. 



82 



STRMTVE OFFICER 
DEPi OF PUBLIC HEALTH 



She is assisted by 20 employees, including two Registered Nurses, 
five Licensed Vocational Nurses and four male and nine female Order- 
lies. It provides 2li-hour service. 

The supply room maintains an inventory of nursing supplies, 
surgical dressings, solutions, needles, syringes etc.j which are re- 
ceived from the General Storeroom or the Pharmacy and issued to the 
wards on basis of requisitions approved by the Nursing Office. A 
receipt for supplies issued is obtained from the ward nurse. 

Used needles and syringes are cleaned, sharpened, tested and put 
back into service. Each ward receives only that number of clean needles 
and syringes that correspond to the number returned to the Supply 
Room, including broken ones. Thus., some form of control is maintained. 
Cleaning and processing; of gloves is performed by ward personnel. 

Requisitions for supplies are transcribed by a Registered Nurse on 
a columnar form, showing for each ward, by month, the quantity of each 
item issued. This record is transmitted to the cost accounting 
department quarterly. 

The efficiency of the supply room has been seriously handicapped 
because of its location in temporary quarters. Present quarters, a 
converted ward, have been occupied for l|? years. Permanent quai'ters 
are now under construction and are expected to be available in July 
1961. It was reported that the operations at that time will be gr.- 
increased because washing and processing of gloves and the preparation 
of surgical trays will be performed by supply room personnel. 

Rec ommeudations 

1. Prepaekae^d Disnosablo Supoliss 

A cost study should be rsade for the purpose of expanding 
of prepackaged disposable supplies such as needles, syringes, and 
gloves. The supply room now uses disposable surgical towels and pre- 
packaged dressings. It is estimated that the use of disposable nees 
and syringes alone will eliminate at least three employees at an est- 
imated annual saving of #211,000. 

2. Records 

The columnar record of supp3i.es issued which is maintained by 
Registered Nurse should be discontinued. The requisitions should be 
transmitted to the cost accounting department currently, thus prcvl 
a current record of costs and releasing the Registered Nurse f 
important duties. 



83 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFI 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 



5UFSERY SECTION 



Findings 

All surgery is concentrated in the same building which houses the 
emergency division. Hie recent alterations and improvements have 
served to bring the surgical unit up-to-date. VJhile the layout of a 
new building might be planned differently to-day to eliminate excessive 
corridor space, the unit is adequate, provided necessary alterations 
are made to permit only surgically garbed personnel to enter surgical 
area. 

The surgical suite is well supplied with instruments. The forced 
ventilation (washed air) is satisfactory and the lighting appears to 
meet all requirements. 

The turnover is very lot? and practically no switching of nursing 
personnel is made with other departments. 

It was the consensus of the personnel contacted that the surgical 
unit is an excellent facility and the working conditions are v 
satisfactory. 

Recomme ndati ons 

1. Recovery Room 

The present recovery room is inadequate and should be enlarged 
modernized. 

2. Reserve Funds for Emergencies 

Apparently there is no provision for emergency purchase of 
equipment, instruments, etc., without a special appropriation o: 
loan of the item through an outside source on a "return at a later 
date" basis. While tliis condition is also applicable to other 
hospital divisions, it becomes especially important when applied to 
such a critical or emergency type activ 

In order to cover contingencies of this nature, we recommend the 
establishment of a x'eserve fund which could be used to meet a legitj 
need on approval of the Superintendent. 

Dictating equipment should be placed ever or near operating table 
for surgeon to utilise during or immediately after operation. (Re£ 
to general dictating system in another section of this report,) 



Bit 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 



CHEST AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES SECTION 



Finding s 



This is a large and important division •under tha direction oX an 
Assistant Director of Nurses who supervises approximately 100 staff 
members performing duties in connection with nursing services and 
patient, care. 

Rec ormaead at ions 

1. Wa^d^lej^^Pjrsonnel 

The principal su>jects requ5.ring attention in this division are 
additional ward, clerk personnel, better supervision of porters, elim- 
ination of 90~day appointments under civil service, and in-training 
program for orderlies. All these subjects are covered in other 
sections of tha report. 



OUT-PATIENT SECTION 



This division handles approximately ii,000 persons per month in the 
basement of Building 90 which is divided into two sections - the north 
end handling all ex-hospital follow-up cases on a group basis and tie 
south end handling prenatal arx3 pediatric eases. The March 1961 
figures indicate 1,300 follow-up, l s Q$h prenatal and 1, 5o7 pediatric 
cases. The follow-up cases are granted treatment only by order of a 
doctor, and other cases are approved through the Director of Admissions. 

Rec ommend at ions 



Insufficient space is a problem here. It is recognised that plans 
are under way for relocating the unit, yet is is suggested that tem- 
porary relief be afforded if possible. 

2. Office Personnel 



More clerical and stenographic help is warranted on account of high 
activity. 

3. Increased ..Capacity/ 

Greater out-patient capacity will materially assist In reduc 
the in-patient load in the hospital. 



DIRECTOR OF HORSES AND OFFICE SECTION 



Total personnel assigned to nursing services is 750 which inel 
Registered Nurse, Licensed Vocational Nurse s and Orderly classi'' 
ations • 

The hospital has a large group of nurses with 10~l£ years of 
service^ however, the turnover is high in the major group of nurseso 
Some of the factors causing the high turnover are these: many 
graduate nurses are transient j competition from other hospitals and 
doctors' offices, and Government agencies s the heavy work load; 
participation in City health and retirement plan which reduces 1 
home pay; and restrictive Civil Service regulations and method' 
employment. 

Only a limited in-training progra.ni is in operation. Regii 
Nurse pay scale is higher than at other hospitals - (:38£ per me- 
$353 per month and a %% premium paid for ward service- 

Recommendations 



Nursing Pool 



The establishment of a nursing pool of 30~2±0 nurses employed on a 
regular monthly basis would be an improvement. The present system 
calls for the temporary employment each day of about 15 special duty 
nurses and about 20 other nurses for relief work. 

Under the proposed plan, the pool nurses would receive their 
assignment each day on arrival and some would be assigned to intern 
care unit (a new division supplanting present arrangement) and others 
to miscellaneous relief world 

This plan 3hould facilitate providing an adequate number of 
nurses each day and the regular monthly cost would probably be 1 
than the combined total presently expended, by using daily ra 

2. r Techaniged Records 

As far as practicable, all bookkeening, time-keeping and record 
work should be mechanized and addressograph plates should be used as 
far as possible on such items as report sheets, etc, 

3. Emplo y e e Facilities 

Each employee should be furnished a locker. 



36 



DEPAE2MEMT 0? PUBIIC 



Proper rest areas for women employees would assist in reducing 
absenteeism. Employee lounge and relaxation areas are needed. 

li. Ward Clerks 

Wherever warranted, a ward clerk should be assigned to take a 
of considerable clerical , phone and miscellaneous work which cons-, 
valuable time of the Registered Nurse. It would afford the Regists 
Nurse a substantial amount of time for additional patient care 
supervision which is needed. 

5. Porter Service 

The general cleanliness of the wards - floors, windows arid bas 
is satisfactory but production is lew. Appears to be ' 
vision and a laisses-faire attitude. Improved standards of produci 
coupled with strict supervision are needed. 

6. f Abs egfceei sm 

Every effort should be made to control and reduce the number of 
absentees through use of an effective doctor-checking system, 
istics should be constantly maintained in order to comr 
rate with other institutions and business. Consid \ 
expense can be saved through a lew level absentee rate. 

?. ffff°,f^.s s_jtegor^ 

A system of ernployee progress reports should be establish , 
employee should net be permitted to go on night duty i 
received. Probationary period should be covered by supervis* 

8. Bedsid e Rail s 

A real problem exists in cases of elderly 
paralysis, etc., experience difficulty ir out of "c . 
rails were obtained for every bed or a side rail type of b 
the older patients could aid themselves: further, it woulc 
to get use of their limbs* 

9 , Recruiting and ^malpyraent of ^Registered Nurses 

There is too much red tape in present system under Civil r 
and many qualified applicants do not consider em 
Complicated in comparison with employment procedures e . 
girls become discouraged due to the appointments and c 
necessary "a^Ier Civil Service. 

The present strict and fo.-nr.al system should be relaxed to 
faster employment procedures. 






CHIEF AIMNISTRAUVE C 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEJ 



Many of the supervising staff believe that the personnel involved 
should be emrloyed without written examination for a 12-month 
probationary period with progi'ess or evaluation reports given at the 
end of the first 30 days and the end of every 3 months. If an era." 
is given an unsatisfactory or marginal report, it would call for dis- 
missal or a further trial on a 30-day report basis, depending 
severity of the case. A study to determine the possibility of sucfc 
practice seems warranted. 

10. Transportation 

The Hospital is located in a district which contains too few 
modern apartments* At night, girls using the bus system are required 
to wait about one-half hour at transfer points. 

Possibly the Municipal Hallway could arrange special bus coverage 
at times which would relieve this situation to some extent, thereby 
making the Hospital a more attractive place of employment for girls 
residinp in other parts of the city. 

Inasmuch as few of the Assistant Directors of nursing were 3p 
if ic ally schooled in broad hospital administration or general 
administration j. these matters should be given attc 
Director of Nursing. The Assistant Directors of ?Jursir 
rotated on a planned basis (six months at least per rotation) . 
will force each tc think primarily in terms of general 
vision and at the same time groom several supporting perse- 
the Director of Nursing. Until this is accompli sled, 
should not be rotated so as to ensure continuity in the variou 
nursing areas. Rotation of new nurses and registered nurses in 
general should be planned and publicised so that the variety of 
assignments becomes attractive and of interest, thereby reducing i 
high nurse turnover due to assignments which are usually "semi- 
permanent" in nature. At some future time, plans can . to 
require a certain amount of rotation among Head Nurses, especially 
to broaden their supervisory escperience in several areas of nursing. 

12, In-Training Program 

A complete in-training program which will greatly aid in : 
performance, lower turnover and assure better results should be 
organized. 



I,TH 



GENERAL HECQMMEWUAIIIONS 

1. Rehabili tation and Hom e Care 

There should be an increased emphasis placed upon rehabilitation 
activities and home care programs to effectuate the policy of moving 
out patients from the Hospital to achieve a faster turnover of hos- 
pital beds for use by critical or acute patients. Home care programs 
may have to be stimulated through a long range effort b,y the Hospital 
administration to assure full cc-ordi nation with continuing in- 
hospital policies and rehabilitation programs aimed at mobility of 
old people. The cost of providing care, where other than full 
hospital service is required, is substantially less through organized 
home care arrangements. 

Preventive care is the most economical and efficient type of 
medical care and every effort should be made to keep the patierr 
of the Hospital* More buildings with bed patients is not the only 
answer to old age. 

2. Out-patient^ Clinics 

Clinics should be developed to carry a greater out-patient 1c 
and thereby to relieve the pressure for admittance into San Francisco 
General Hospital. At presents tb e Hospital has no choice but to 
admit applicants who qualify, even in marginal cases. It may 
practicable in certain instances to assign some applicants to home- 
care and clinic treatment as an alternati-;e to hospital admittance, 
or as a means of transfer after admittance. 

3* Centralized .Stenographic Service 

Institute a eentralised telephonic dictation serv5.ee center for 
use by various sections of the Hospital and furnished < 
recording equipment as now in common practice in industry. Arra 
ments should be made to enable recording discs to be available 
throughout the 2k hours for dictating service* 

The installation of such a center will require an evaluation of 
all types of stenographic service now performed throughout the 
Hospital. Certain combination clerical and stenographic posit.', 
may also have elements of work load suitable for separation into 
centralized telephonic dictation service. 

The centralized stenographic-transcribing center would be staffed 
on a 2li-hour, 7-day basis to ensure fast transcription and deli'.- 
of finished copy. 



69 



CHIEF AK-JIHISm'ilW. 
BEPAHTHBNT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 



li. Health Adviso r y Committee 

In order to make the present Health Advisory Committee more effec- 
tive, it should be - (l) increased in sise from 7 to 3.3-1 £ members 
representing and encompassing a greater cross section of the community 
and (2) it should meet at least bi-monthly as an interested and ao> 
body. Its full purpose should be to render full advisory assistar; 
and act without authority and commensurate responsibility as it 
affects the public health and institutional activities. 

The current practice at the Hospital is to house in the same 
wards acute care patients together with chronic geriatric patients. 

This results in the following unsatisfactory condition? 

A. Increased care cost of chronic geriatric, patients. 

B. Diagnostic and treatment extremes experienced by 

professional staff attending mixed patients. 

C. Nursing activities become complicated 

D. Ward requirements must be maintained at a maximum 

level for all patients. 

E. Disassodation of like patients tends to inhibit the 

recovery benefits of each group of patients. Under 
these conditions it is difficult to implement 
sound rehabilitation program for other geriatric 
patients. 

To offset these disadvantages and to effect raa.jor economies in this 
area of the Hospital's operations, we recommend as a preferred plan 
that the following action be taken. 

F. Transfer all IB patients (except surgical cases) to Hassler 

Health Home - about 125 patients. 

G. Return the geriatric patients now located at the Hassler 

Health Home to the San Francisco General Hospital. 

H. Establish separate wards for acute and for geriatric- 
patients segregating each type in adjoining buildings. 
Very little e::pense would be incurred in converting 
present wards to service for geriatric patients. 

!„ Limit occupancy of eaeh ward to approximately 26 beds. 
This will place the care in the wards on an ideal 
basis in relation to nursing service and general 
patient handling: furthermore, it will allow space in 
the average ward to place more patients in wheel- 
chairs during the day. 

As a result of the plan of operation it is estimated that for 
same number and kind of patient s, the reduction of hospital cost 
amount to approximately $2, 000., 000 per year- 




:SP AEMINISTRATIVE 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC. 



This figure is based on the daily average San Francisco General 
rate of $27.00 par day, a geriatric -rate of &L3.00 per day, and a 
Hassler T.B. rate of $13.50 per day. 

The following tabulation indicates bed and yard totals: 

Proposed Flan 

Acute 500 19 

T.B. 150 1 

Geriatrics ,,.,2.58,. -1L. 

Total 900 31 

Reserve 2. 

Total 33 

The plan provides for two reserve wards at San Francisco • - 
Hospital vihxch can be used for either type of patient. The flexibl 
of 3uch an arrsngeisent penaats adjustment to nest varied conditions. 

An alternate to the above plan would call for the concentrate 
of all T.B. patients at San Francisco General Hospital and the use of 
Hassler Health Hoes to the capacity of its 270 beds for low cost e 
geriatric patients* however, the adoption of this plsn would re 
a saving of about #1,250.000 per year. 

In any event, the Hassler Health House should be utilised 
full capacity. Also, any pending additions to the staff at San 
Francisco General Hospital should be held until the above reccr 
is followed to a conclusion. 

6. Pneumatic „ Tube ,§gst®a 

The iiaportance of a pneumatic tube system cannot be under-estj 

when consideration is given 'bo the treHandcus axaount of records, 
drugs, specimens and miscellaneous material which is distributed e 
day between the nuEsrous departments located in the widely separate 
group of buildings. 

The cost of operating the messenger service division during the 
fiscal year ended June 30, I960 amounted to #95,000 or about §0.41 per 
call. The Bureau of Architecture estimates that an adequate 67-stat 
pneumatic tube installation would cost 0500,000. The tube installal 
would substantially reduce the nudber of isessengers needed 
saving is estimated at $60,000 per year plus a saving in til 
eaiployees each day travelling to and froa central time clocks calcu- 
lated at approxisiately 040,000 per year (use of tube for tine cards) 
would indicate that the installation would psy for itself in aboul 
years. 

91 






In addition t the saving in costs over a f oriod of time, it must 
be recognized that the value of the speed-up and fast dispatch of 
items between locations is incalculable In view of the sizeable L 
vestment in the San Francisco General Hospital, it would appear that 
the benefits which would accrue to the entire hospital facility by 
use of a tube system would warrant placing it number one or. tho list 
of improvements to be made. 

We recommend the installation of an adequate pneumatic tv 
system and urge er.rly consideration of the matter. 

7o Protection 

In order to prevent theft and/or mysterious disappearance of 
materials and suprlies - also to prevent vandalism and protect the 
property o.C employees and visitors, it is recommended b 
Francisco ' olice Department establish an office at "the Hospj. 
staffed by one or two experienced investigative type officers 
inspectors on a 2k-hour basis, It would be their duty to develop 
protective measures, perform investigative x^ork and develop oe 
leading to the apprehension of persons involved, in such matters 
a uniformed police officer should be on duty at the admitting sect' 
2lj hours per day. 



The Kosoital has use for a small auditorium which can be used for 
meetings, conferences, lectures and educational presentations in con- 
nection with the activities of the 1,600 employees. 

We recommend such an installation. 

9. Time Clocks 

It is recommended that a control be established covering this re- 
quirement which will eliminate multiple time card handling by one 
employee » 

If a pneumatic tube system is installed (refer to recc 
another section of this report), the time clocks can be dec 
and placed in respective departments or em; 

will simplify the control problem^ In the interim, some action sh 
be taken regarding the present ineffective control on employee worl 
time, 

10. Discipline 

Lack of discipline is evident to a degree in the porter and 
parable level employee. 



92 



CHIEF ABHIHISTPJL' 
DEPAR1KENT OF PUBLIC 



Prompt appropriate action should be taken whenever this occurs 
and it should be a regulation that all infractions, such as refusal 
to perform a task, indifference, lack of co-operation, etc., should 
be promptly reported to the Personnel Office. 

11. 

A special ward ($hH>) is maintained at the Hospital for the 
handling of compensation cases involving City employees. The 
permits the City to carry its own compensation coverage when it main- 
tains suitable hospital facilities in its regular operation. As a 
result, the City, many years ago, set up a special ward at the San 
Francisco General Hospital for this ptirpose and its continuance from 
year to year lias been "traditional". 

The compensation coverage is handled by the Retirement Board who 
verbally arrange for a fixed daily rate by negotiation with the 
Hospital. There is no written contract. 

Ward #li£ has a 2£-bed capacity. The average number of compensation 
patients is 12* On the day checked, only 6 beds were in use. Full 
nursing and related service is available at all times regardless of 
occupancy. The Hospital retains control of the use of beds not 
occupied by compensation cases; however, except for special purposes 
at infrequent intervale the excess beds are not used by the Hospital. 

We recommend a review of this policy and the adoption of one of 
the following suggestions: 

1. Establish a speeial ward for compensation cases with 
sufficient capacity for average number of pati 
contract elsewhere for any excess cases. This would 
release beds and space needed for the Hospital; or 

2. If warranted from a City expense standpoint, reserve 
full use of ward to Retirement Board with provision 
for payment of unused beds; or 

3» Retirement Board to make arrangements in some other 
hospital for the handling of compensation cases. 

12. Semi-Skilled Employees 

There is great over-classification of similar type skills through- 
out the San Francisco General Hospital (and at Laguna Honda Hone and 
Hassler Health Home). On wards there should bo a minimum of distinct 
classifications consistent with sound salary administration princr 
to allow the ward nurse to get her job done with maximum flea&bili" 
in obtaining help in handling patients and performing non-nurs 
service in the ward. 



y* 



CUT' ":."£?£ OEFI 

UBLIC HEA 



Currently, the Head Nurse knows what needs to be done but is handi- 
capped by the rigidity of class specifications covering 6-9 vario\is 
categories that could serve her in patient care (i.e., Licensed 
Vocational Wurse, Practical Murse, Senior Orderly, Orderly, Itorgue 
Attendant. Dental Assistant, Medical Lab Assistant, etc.)- 

With regard to nan-»nurai.r<g service needs in each ward, and in 
various other service areas of the Hospital, manual skills requiring 
minimum special training are so classified that although the Head 
Hurse knows what needs to be done, she and other members of super- 
vision are handicapped by the rigidity of class specifications covering 
15>~20 various categories that could serve interchangeably in non- 
nursing service (i.e., Cook's Assistant, Watchman, House Mother, 
Elevator Operator, Washer, Wringerraan, Tumblerraari, Counter Attendant, 
Laundry Utility Wan, Seamstress, Porter, Kitchen Helper, Waitress, 
Waiter, Laundress, Marker & Distributor, Sorter, Stare her, Flatwork 
I rone r, Typist I, Office Assistant, etc.)- 

In general, the Hospital authorities should assign a wide variety 
of duties to these employees which can be reflected in their class 
specifications. This would establish a few broad categories in both 
the nursing service and the non-nursing service and would result in 
greater use being made of present personnel. 

The 12-month probationary period employment practice previously 
suggested, should apply to the proposed new employee classifications 
if found feasible after study. 

Savings are estimated at $6U0,000 per year. 

13 « Intensive^Cgre Ward 

There is great need at the San Francisco General Hospital for one 
ward of 20 beds to be staffed, equipped, and designed as "Intensive 
Care Ward". Transferred to this ward would be patients, medical or 
surgical, in need of intensive medical and nursing care on an arous 
t he-clock basis and of a magnitude greater than normally available 
an "acute ward". An example of coverage in these cases might include 
seme or all of the following: 

a. Doctors on duty 2h hours a day at just this ward. 

b. Anesthetist on duty 2k hours a day at just this ward. 

c. Double or triple normal ward nurse coverage 2lj. hours/day here. 

d. Piped oxygen at each patient location in this ward. 

e. Portable x-ray and other type of emergency equipment permanently 

in place here. 

f . Patient separation possibilities, either by movable partition 

or curtaining. 

g. Medical-clerical force 2h hours/day to keep up-to-date on 

patient records. 



9h 



CHIEF ADMUttSTRATEVE OFFICER 
OF PUBLIC 



Use of this type of patient segregation will ensure that the most 
serious patient cases are given maximum medic al-nursing care (to save 
their lives or hasten their recovery), that this is done with maximum 
efficiency in terms of personnel needed, and special equipment and 
facilities important to the degree of seriousness of illness- 
present, to cover the same number of patients requiring intensive 
the medical j nursing and other services must cover most of the was 
of the Hospital because chronic, acute and intensive care patients are 
rai-ed and segregated by ailment, not by seriousness of illness. If 
efficiency, economy and effectiveness can be gained by the separation 
of chronic patients from acute patients, then the same is true with 
regard to separation of intensive care patients from acute patients, 
especially in matters involving the installation of certain equipment 
important to intensive care, but not necessary on a hospital-wide 
basis . 

lU. Surveys and Reports 

Many surveys covering various aspects of the Hospital operation 
have been made in the past by experts. Grand Juries, civic groups, 
professional consultants and others. In many instances there is a 
unanimity of opinion on a given subject. 

In order that the top administration nay have a ready means of 
expediting the implementation of appropriate recommendations, it ia 
proposed that a uniform procedure be instituted whereby the pro] 
level administrative group, .pon analyzing the survey, issues a written 
report stating opinions pro or con on the feasibility of each 
recommendation. 

In this manner, considerable duplicate work and effort would be 
avoided. 

15« ^n^Francij^o General Hospital Informational Service 

A broad informational activity of considerable potential value to 
the Hospital 1 s public interest and the people of San Francisco could 
be accomplished in the following manner: 

Assign to the new professional incumbent of the Medical 
Librarian position the added responsibility of serving as the 
San Francisco General Hospital Information Center- (Ibis 
involves a public relations function. ) Ibis is a new concept 
and embraces an exploratory approach to providing a concen- 
trated source for authentic information regarding the 
Hospital and its related activities and programs. It is con- 
templated that some of the original effort in this direction 
would be to prepare press releases, pictures, and publicity 
suitable for newspapers and other periodicals. Ihe work would 
also include such informational releases as to the following: 



OF PUBLIC 



- educational articles about improvements in the Hospital 

•and facilities; 

- reliable and adequate information about health programs 

and policies; 

- popular and professional magazine news releases; 

- current press releases on important news it-; 

- broad informational pieces on hospital administration and 

activities for students, other hospitals, schools, etc* 

B > HASSLE!^ imLW, _ HOMS 

Findings 

The Hassler Health Home, originally called the San Francisco Health 
Farm, is located in the vicinity of Redwood City, San Mateo County. 
The property comprises an area of 30li acres, much of it undeveloped. 
It was established in 1927 by Dr. William C. Hassler, then Director of 
Public Health in San Francisco, as a hospital for patients suffer;: 
from tuberculosis. 

Originally, the capacity of the hospital was $3 beds. In the " : 
by means of a W.P.A. Project, its capacity was expanded to 270 beds. 
Since 192*8, as a result of the development and use of new drugs £ 
combating tuberculosis, the occupancy of this hospital by T.B. pato 
has gradually declined. Also, many T.B. patients are retained at San 
Francisco General Hospital. 

The Hassler Health Home appears to be an excellent cperatio 
the present time is under the supex^ision of Dr. Ssu Tson, who is 
training and er-rperience eminently qualified to direct its operatic 
The nodical staff consists of 3 full-time Physicians in additic. 
Dr. Tsou, and 2 part-time Physician-Specialists, one in Bacteriology 
and one in Cardiology. Surgical procedures are performed at the San 
Francisco General Hospital. The Hassler Health Home has no pharmacy, 
and all drugs are under the supervision of and are dispensed by Dr. 
Tsou. 

The Hassler Health Home now is occupied by 137 T.B, patients and 
3u chronically ill, non~tubercralosis female patients who were trans- 
ferred from the San Francisco General Hospital in December, 19 £9. 
female pat5.ents are bedridden and need intensive bedside nursing care. 
The 13? ToB. patients are allocated to different wards according 
their status; 



I 



61 so-called "treatment failure" cases, i.e., those who 
are still infectious tuberculosis patients, are housed 
in ward £» 

22 patients classified as infirmary cases, who are not 
infectious but suffer from other physical disabilities 
are housed 5.n ward 6, 

5/4 ambulatory patients are housed in wards 1-iij they 
are non-infectious and are ready for discharge. Of 
these ?U patients, 23 are working as inmate-helpers, 
such as gardeners, store clerks, laundry assistants, 
painter's, movie projection operators, radio mechanics 
etc. 

The 31 ambulatory patients who are not used as inmate helpers 
be discharged providing they were being supervised through an Out- 
Patient Chest Clinic. 

All patients appear to receive adequate and good nursing care 
according to their needs. The staff of 115 persons is well balanced 
and appears to be dedicated to their work. 

. It does not appear to be necessary to retain this hospital ex- 
clusively as a T.B« unit. The location, climate and surroundings 
appear to be ideally suited, for chronically ill or custodial cases as 
well as T.B. patients. Some wards could be re-grouped to prc" r . ; 
accommodations for UO-50 additional geriatric patients. At the 
time there era 66 vacant beds. In the event these 2*0-50 patients r 
cared for at this hospital, it is estimated that the present staff 
would have to be augmented by the addition of 6 Registered Surses and 
12 Orderlies. No other staff increases would be required, but additional 
linen would be a necessity. 

However, since the Hassler Health Home is basically designed r 
rest and treatment home for tubercular patients, it would appear to be 
more practicable -bo transfer chest cases from the San Francisco General 
Hospital so that the Hassler Health Home will be operated : 
capacity. Hassler is able to handle a T.B. patient in manner 
and it is geared for regular study of the patient with consultation of 
outstanding specialists. 

The buildings and grounds at the Hassler Health Home are well 
maintained; however, equipment in the wards appears somewhat no 

Recommendations 

1. Full Capacity Operation 

The 3U non-tubercular female patients should be returned to the £ 
Francisco General Hospital or transferred to the Laguna Honda Homej 

9? 



STHATEVE OFFICER 
DEPARTMENT OP PUBLIC HEALTH 



and the 31 ambulatory patients who are not used as inmate help should 
be discharged in care of an Cut-Patient Chest Clinic. Such transfers 
and discharges, together with the 66 vacant beds, would make 
additional facilities for 12 £-130 chest and tubercular cases avail- 
able. 

This preferred plan would also release wards at the San Francisco 
General Hospital for geriatrics and cause the Hassler Health Home to 
operate at full capacity. (Please refer to recommendations in 
another section of this report pertaining to the San Francisco 
General Hospital which includes an alternate plan dealing with 
geriatric patient/ s.) 

2. Expanded Facilities 

In vievr of the gradual but steady decline in ths number of T.B. 
patients, enlargement or expansion of the present facilities at the 
Hassler Health Home is NOT recommended. A new appraisal can be i 
10 years heme regarding the development of T.B. ani building re- 
quires nts B 



Ward 6-B houses the 3k women patients. These patients are unable 
to use shoivers and there is only 1 old-type bathtub available in this 
ward. It new takss 2 persons to bring a patient to and from ths 
bathtub. It is therefore recommended that the showers be removed and 
replaced by an elevated bathtub, which would require only 1 pr.: 
handle the patient. 

li. Ward Equip ment 

Ward equipment is in need of better maintenance. Beds and fumiti 
should be painted and/or repaired. Old, obsolete beds should bs re- 
placed by new mechanical beds. New bed stands are needed. This 
replacement program could be spread over a period of years. 

5>. Linen 

The Inventory of linen should be substantially/ increased. 

6. Sojial^Kall Equipment 

The present projection equipment x-?as obtained frcm the 1939 Fair. 
Possibly some volunteer group or a commercial movie equips 
would have some newer equipment available at a low cost or as a 
donation. Also, new movable chair seats are needed in the social 
hall-movie area. 



9S 



ADMIKISTRA-ETVE CI 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 



7 Office Work 

The Clinical Laboratory Technologist has considerable paper work 
and a part- tiros steno- typist is needed „ This additional help would 
permit the technologist to carry on more important work, 

8 - Ifelleg Technologist 

Arrangements should be made for relief of the technologist during 
absences other than regular vacation periods* 



Dietitian coverage is no*; only 5 days per week, yet 2%% of patients 
are or- special diets „ It should be extended to 7~day coverage. 

10. Cost per Day 

The present cost per patient per day is $13.5>1 end the complete 
use of this facility as a T„B C hospital would effect a reduction in 
this cost 6 Current costs of treating T.B„ patients at San Francisco 
General Hcspital is $25,32 per day* (Refor to San Francisco General 
Hospital report - General Recommendations «• item •;" 

11. Prepackaged Ifedical Sup pl ies 

Prepackaged medical supplies should be used in lieu of current 
extensive preparation of bandages, compresses;, gloves, etc, 

12 „ Maintenance 

The same maintenance problems and conditions prevail at Hassler 
Health Home as at San Francisco General Hospital. (Refer to San 
Francisco General Hospital - Maintenance Bivisision report for details,) 



C. EMEHBEHCY HOSPITAL SERVICES 
Fi ndings 

The Emergency Hospital Service in the Cit7 of San Franciv 
matches, and in some cases exceeds, all similar organisations through- 
out the nation. 

Highly trained, skilled professional, and non-professional per- 
sonnel, connected with Ihis service, perform in an efficient and 
dedicated manner in the treatment of persons in need of urgent care. 



99 



- 
erforrred by t 

eel becomes i i 
2 returrr 
of li .'iated su 

The Emergency Hosj 'dstered and 

emergency hospitals, known a ter four 

hospitals are Alenany, Ha. 
The Admit 1 ri.ee at I 

■ 

■Is and. r lated -7- ices arc 

hour basis $ 7-da.- 

00 calls a year. 

While ; a source of civic pr i 

and - 

.nplene-r^ -rouble so- 

which unnecessarily s e cost of onso 

TnaC: -ervisor-- nt personnel 

opera % manner orraance : 

are traditional : 

Hecoarienti ations 

Ambu lance and Hospital Fv 

a. At the present tirae, char, 
emer^c 
abuse and i his sen percentage o; 

3lvrs of this ser ,- to pay, as m t 

are now cover© nsurance which include 

irt of the covers 'inanciall 

ntage of ■ aince pa 

L r respc; 
off err ,e cases 

burdt 



CHI I 



It is recognized that fees cannot be collected in cases involving 
totally indigent persons, but an effort should be made to collect such 
a fee wherever possible, without resorting to the use of property 
liens <. 

It is not intended that fees collected for ambulance service cover 
the total cost of this activity., Its primary purpose is to discourage 
the misuse of the present free benefits and further to partially re- 
duce operating costs as a by-product of the charge. 

It is recommended that a $LO,OQ flat fee be charged for each am 
bulanee cello Each call responded to by ambulance shall be reported 
to the Billing and Collection Division at the San Francisco General 
Hospital which id. 11 initiate and process the bill. This division 3.3 
well organized and adequately staffed to handle this activity, there- 
fore administrative costs should be -7erj low* It is estimated that 
about "1 50,000 a year will accrue to the city if only %Q% of the 
current number of emergency patients pay for this service. 

Ambulances should be dispatched as they are now, by using the same 
screening techniques and not on the question of whether the patient 
can pay; the primary purpose of this service being to save lives and 
not to collect money. 

b oeri cus consideration was given to establishing a fee schedule 
for the treatment of patients in the emergency hospitals with the idea 
of accomplishing the same results to be produced with an ambulance 

Because of the extreme cost to administer such a plan and the 
clinical implications that are involved, it is recommended that the 
practice of treating emergency hospital patients x-Jithout charge be 
continued. 

Hospita l 

Park Emergency Hospital is almost 70 years old and is badly in need 
of extensive repairs and modernisation. A continuing lack of 
as to whether the hospital shall be replaced or eliminated,, 
in an inefficient activity being conducted in a dilapidated struct' 
upon which no funds apparently are to be spent. 

This committee concurs with the recommendation made in the "Mcnardo 
Report" of "Tovembsr 16, 1959 dealing with the San Francisco General 
Hospital, wherein it was suggested that; 

a» Park Emergency Hospital be closed. 

b* The city contract with the Board of Regents of the Univer- 
of California to permit the city to operate and maintain its 
ambulances and stewards from and at the University of Calj 
ornia, Moffitt Hospital Emergency Department, who will 
accept and treat all classes cl patients: 

101 



CHIE 

i'JH 



Co The present Park Emergency driver and steward personnel 
be transferred to this location 

This action will nob only continue to provide needed coverage for 
emergency care of the residents in the immediate and adjacent areas s 
but will provide many other advantages and benefits, including an 
estimated saving of $8O,OOQ~$9O,0OO a year as compared, with the cost 
to operate Park Emergency, Furthermore, the need for a large cepital 
improvement expenditure would be obviated by not construe ting a new 
hospital* 

3 « M on~Erae rgency Ambulance Use 

At the present time, emergency hospital ambulances are being at 
to perform non-anergency services which frequently interfere with 
true emergency operations. This is misuse cf trained personnel and 
specialized equipment* Some of these non-emergency services consist 
of the following: 

Q.o Transporting of soiled and clean laundry between 
emergency hospitals and Laguna Honda Hotae. 

b„ Transporting drugs, supplies, etc., from Central 
Supply to the hospitals., 

c. Transporting prisoners and other warrant cases 
for the Police Department and Sheriff's Office. 

do Transporting emotionally disturbed patients, in- 
cluding those under Mental Illness Petitions and 
those who are transported to San Francisco General 
Hospital for diagnosis and observation on a 
voluntary basis. 

e* Transporting patients to and from San Francisco 
General Hospital, from their respective homes, for 
out-patient services. Some of these are ambulatory, 
others are bed cases* (This can be corrected by 
placing more emphasis on a home treatment program 
as outlined in another section of this reporl 

f = Transporting patients between San Francisco General 
Hospital, Laguna Honda Home and Hassler Health Home. 

It is recommended that a more efficient and economical means be 
found to perform these and similar duties and that these highly tra 
personnel and their specialized, expensive equipment be devoted so] 
to emergency work. 



102 



CHI 1 
DEr DF PUBLIC 



Uo Ambulance Equipment 

It is reconmended that all emergency ambulances be equipped with 
resuscitation equipment. At the present time, neither the ambulance 
nor the emergency hospitals have this sorely needed tool and must 
rely on the Fire Department for assistance. This results in delays 
which may prove fatal, and causes another vehicle with personnel to 
respond to the same call. 

5>» Reclassification of Personn el 

To provide maximum flexibility in the utilization of skilled per- 
sonnel, it is recommended that the duties of Ambulance Driver and 
Emergency Hospital Steward be interchangeable. This will permit supervisors 
greater latitude in making temporary relief appointments and will simpli 
scheduling and rotation of personnel. 

6„ Superv i sion 

Around-the-clock, sevon-day-a-week supervision at the Superintendent 
level is needed to satisfy requirements aid legal obligations. Currently, 
the Superintendent and the Assistant Superintendent attempt to provide 
this function seven days a week* 2h hours a day at considerable per- 
sonal sacrifice and without adequate remuneration* This becomes 
extremely difficult during vacation periods or T *ien one or both may be 
111. 

It is recommended that consideration be given to suppler© nting the 
present supervisory force with adequate assistance to achieve proper 
coverage* 

1" Mate rnit y Cases 

As a regular practice, the Pre-Natal Clinic at San Francisco 
General Hospital issues an instruction card to all patients which, among 
other things, instructs the patient to call for emergency hospital am- 
bulance service when she feels delivery is imminent. This practice 
should be discontinued immediately as many of these people have other 
satisfactory means of getting to the hospital, such as their personal 
automobile. This practice tends to make all maternity cases emergency 
by nature. 

8. Admitting Service ( Mission Emergency) 

a„ The Admitting Service, formally known as Mission Emergency, 
should use the same registration procedure used at Central 
Emergency to log a patient' 3 ensgrgency visits and treatment. 

b. A separate area should be set aside for patients seeking 
emergency treatment with these persons given preferential 
attention. 

103 



'TMEWT F PUBL 



Current practice is to utilize a common holding 
area for emergency cases and other patients 
awaiting interviews with social workers for ad- 
mittance to the hospital. This is inefficient 
and a casual means of handling patients of an 
emergency nature. 

9. Public Jidunation 

A continuing, well-planned program, of educating the public to use, 
but not abuse, their emergency hospital privj.leges should be implemented <, 
Repetitive dissemination of educational publicity should be employed * 



BUREAU OF FOOD AMD SA:EEIARY INSPHJTIDN 



The Bureau of Food and Sanitary Inspection is a subdivision of the 
Environmental Sanitation Services organization. Its principal res- 
ponsibility is the protection of the public health tipough general 
sanitation and housing inspection activities in enforcing the applic 
state and local laws, codes and ordinance provisions.. These p 
to the general areas of foods, restaurants, markets, indust: 
and multi-unit housing, The total staff consists of 80 employees. 

Recommendations 

General and Ifis cellaneous 

1. The development and adoption or formalized work practices, pro- 
cedures and manuals should be completed and thereafter kept in c i 
status. These procedures, supplemented by standai'd literature in . : 
respective fields should be used in conjunction with the recently 
inaugurated training program „ 

2o The work of the "forms committee" should be expanded until all 
applicable forms and procedures have been reviewed with the objectives 
of their improvement, re-design, and elimination of those deemed un- 
necessary or obsolete. First, consideration should bo given to com- 
pletion of the re-design of the daily and monthly work perf arr? 
reporting by individual inspectors snd separate districts, 

3. The present weekly "abatement conferences", hj the acting bureau 
administrator and district supervisors should he move formalized 
through secretarial assistance and recording of the proceedings for 
future reference- 

h* Further study should be made of ths existing license and permit 
to assure that all types and services are £dGquatel3r ccvez 5 sd tc 
the inspect ional arid related costs involved. 

lOij 



CHIEF ADMHttSTRaTTVE OFFICER 
AR1MSNT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 



time, inequitable rates should be avoided between 
size establishments, such as for small and large restaur- 

Inspectii 

5o The demarcation between the respective spheres of duties and re 
possibilities of the Bureau of Food and Sanitary Inspection inspectors 
and those of the Building Inspection Bureau, Fire Department and 
others concerned should be clearly and formally defined, A detailed 
survey and analj^sLs should be made of the present duties and respon- 
sibilities of all these agencies in order to eliminate overlapping and 
duplication of work performed and to establish a completely integrated 
and co-ordinated syst 

6« The violations observed and the required corrective measures 
initiated by the sanitation and housing inspectors should be supported 
by a written notice served on the property owner or other responsible 

:n, at site, at the tine the violations are found, with a copy 
retailed by the inspector for future follow-up. 

• of housing code violations, the initial notice should 
be followed by formalized instructions sufficient to indicate 
the nature and extent of the work to be done and requiring the 
prompt preparation of adequate sleteh plans and specifications 
upon which necessary building, plumbing., electrical and other 
permits and fees may be issued and subsequent inspections 
carried out, 

(b) Copies of such notices and follow-up instructions, as well as 
cf the necessary sketch plans, specifications, etc., should be 
furnished to all departments and agencies concerned and their 
respective participation in the permit issuance, plan and 
specification approval, work inspection, etc., should be 
limited strictly to their respective legal responsibilities . 

(c) Thereafter, the repeated visits v the sanitation and housing 
inspectors to the project sites, in the nature of "building 
inspectors" "ould be discontinued and their responsibility 
limited to assuring that the "health and sanitation" aspects 
have been complied with at the completion of the jobc 

7o More of the time of the sanitation and housing inspectors should be 
devoted to "house to house 3 ' sanitation and public health inspections 
so that a complete recoiti of all premises (improved and vacant) is 
compiled and filed for each sub-district, notices of all unsanitary 
conditions served and followed-up and corrections of all housing vio- 
lations initiated* Concurrently, the Inspectors should be held respon- 
sible for the current mairitenance of acceptable sanitary and housing 
standards in the sub-districts to which assigned. 



105 



BE. ' *TH 



Special Duty Unit 

8„ The duties and responsibilities of the Special Duty Unit should be 
re-examined with -foe objective of discontinuing all "condition 
surveys* of buildings or areas contemplated for redevelopment 
and/or rehabilitation and the respective personnel transferred to 
the official agencies established for these purposes in order to 
reinforce and expedite this urgent work, 

9c The duties and responsibilities of the remaining personnel in the 
Special Duty Unit should be confined to: (l) the checking and 
approval of the sanitation and public health aspects of plans and 
specifications for new and alteration projects, (2) participation 
in abatement hearings and preparation of condemnation reports* 
(3) research, surveys and special problems and reports as a staff 
aid to the Bureau administrator. 

Rodent Control 

10 o The supervisor and rodent controlmen should be required to serve 
a written notice on the owner or other responsible person upon 
whose premises rodent infestation and rodent harborage is found, 
with specific instructions and time limitations for their abate- 
ments, copiesof such notices being furnished to the district 
sanitation and housing inspector, through channels, for Ms in- 
formation and follow-up » 

Any unsanitary conditions found by the rodent controlman in the 
course of the rat sampling operations., should be likewise called 
to the attention of the respective sanitary and housing inspector 
by use of a suitable form designed for this purpose. 

11, Consideration should be given to using the seme geographical 
district and sub-district boundaries for rodent sampling opera- 
tions as for sanitation and housing inspections in order that 
these present separate activities may be sore closely co- 
ordinated for more effective control and results. 

Summary 

12. Based on observations made in the field, in coiupany with aa 
inspector in each of the four districts and with rodent control- 
men, it may be generally concluded that the degree of compliance 
received appears slow and indifferent, requiring a great deal of 
persuasion rather than the exercise of enforcement authority, 
lending considerable supporh to the over-all recommendation that: 

The entire sanitation and housing inspection policy and practice 
should be considerably strengthened in order to assure the tax- 

jrs and general public of receiving the type and degree of 
public health protection which they rightfully deserve. 



106 



! STRATI VE 



IV 
DIRECTOR OF FINA NCE & RECORD S 

A„ Organization Chart Next 

B. County Clerk-Recorder 108 

C. Public Administrator 111 
D„ Tax Collector • 112 

E. Registrar of Voters 11? 

F. Records Center 117 
G t Recommendations Involving Charter Change 120 



107 



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t^ |= | 

a: O 

O * ' I 1 I -1 I 1 

X ° , . , ____— 

O I ' I I I I 

o 

or O uj oui: ■< a= UJ 

=> o zuj^ id — > 



: — 3; ., 3: 



I — I— <t O UJ o 



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<OW~2 



3: o s a uj a_ 






B. COUUTY CL3R K r R|ffiRDSR 

£&s£&U g 

County Clerk's Division acts 
record of the Superior Court of • and County of San Franei; 
addition th atutory indices are maintained, the p: 

ones being the Corporation Index, the Fictitious Hoes Index, and the 1 
of Notaries. Marriage licenses are issued hy this office. 

The Recorder e s Division, as required by State law, receives for re- 
cord 5-ng all papers or notices that my by lav be recorded, makes and keeps 
a ts" 3X0s the name, and arr« 

and indices in su places to faei3.it •Ion. 

The consolidation of the County Clerk and Recorder offices bec&xas 
effective in November I960 and insuf ■ . "tss has elapsed to pe 
establishing the proper organization structure, for this Department 
its staff of 86 persons. 

Action should be taken to reorganise this office, with considera- 
tion given to including the office of Registrar of Voters, thereby establish- 
ing a combined office of County Glerk-Recorder-Registrar under one 
director, which would result in a material reduction in staff. 

An insprovessent in the physical layout is essential in order tl 
Divisions can he adjacent to eaefe other and operate on one floor. 

1. C^njo^dj^oa 

The bookkeeping, payroll and general 

sions, County Clerk and Recorder, should be consolidated i 

supervision of the Principal. Clerk-Stenc- 

ciency. Distribution of payroll checks should be simplified. 

Personnel performing indexing work in the two divisions should be 
interchangeable, resulting in an estimated reduction of at least 
employees at a saving of #12,4-50 a year. 



The present organisation structure in the Recorder c s I ■ 

be rearranged to provide for five distinct units ( Cashier-Gene c 

Document - Marriage License - Repr Division) headed by 



108 






principal position in each unit and all tinder the general supervision 
of the Assistant Recorder. This would eliminate the need for a Chief 
Clerk at a saving of $11,4-60 a year. 



The Count . adjacent to each 

other on the same fie m for comfortable 

and adequate public apace. 



The counter in each division and in the Marriage License Bureau Cashier 
Section should be combined, with an estimated reduction of five ei 
at a saving of 031,130 a year. (To assist in accomplishing this " 
the information desk should be sore p seated in the lobl 
City Hall as there is a practice for some of the public to seek infos, 
nation from the Recorder's office.) 

Training courses in public relations should be afforded all counter 
personnel . 



Cashiers 3 cages and counter equipment should be modernised and the 
quarters maintained in a neat or. iner. Accoustical tre 
should be applied to the ceiling in the County Clerk" 

Condition of filing equipment should 
acquired ^here necessary. 

9. 2SeroJ31g£B£ 

A study should be made to evaluate cost, and savings, of 

of documents prior to 1937. Consideration should be given uti 

of free time of present ecuipment. 

10,. Idling 



t such as Photostat Document Raader-Frinte: 
expedite" service to the public, 
.forms should also be considered. 






CHI.: STRATIVE OFFICER 

DIRECTOR FINANCE AND RECORDS 

12. fisslLSsBfcai, 

The rental value of the desk space used by the title companies and others 
should be reappraised, with a viev to making an adjustment if Justified. 

The legal and other aspects of the present practice of supplying free 
copies of documents and abstracts for any criminal proceedings to other 
departments of City 5 County, State and federal Governments should be 
examined, with a view to instituting a possible charge to cover costa 

14-. Court Deposits 

The procedure of handling Court deposits as trust funds should be 
explored in order to effect an appropriate fee. 

15. MgiJ&gMs&ML 

The City and County of San Francisco should go on record favoring S 
legislation which would establish a new fee schedule for estates based 
on a sliding scale vith increased income to the City. 



A better record, faster reference, and further reduction in staff would 
be accomplished by mechanising the indexing through usage of punched 
cards. Alameda and Los Angeles Counties are now utilising this tyjoe 
of system. Office personnel with greater sld.113 will be required 
this type of mechisation. 



110 






c public umMiyriuapR 



The public Administrator's office, with a 3taff of 18 is responsible 
for administration of estates of rJaaeaseA persons where there are no 
heirs of the decedent residing in the State of California, or in cases of 
an intectate decedent where there is no executor named in the will, or 
the executor is unable or fails to qualify and there are no resident heirs 
in the State. The Public Administrator also serves as Ex-Gfficio Public 
Guardian and deals with the protection of assets of persons .judged unable 
to act in their own behalf. 



1- Office Space 

Present office space is inadequate and the arrangement of office 
facilities is not conducive to good operation. 



The Public Guardian section should be housed with the Public Administrat- 
or's office. Closer working relationships should be investigated re- 
garding distribution of clerical, typing, and accounting work load to 
new positions in Public Guardian's section. 



Modern office equipment, such as a copy machine, dictaphone, and 
electric typewriter, should be provided. 

U. Ajjdi£ 

An annual audit should be made as protection to the Public Adminir; : 
as well as to the City and County government. 

5. Dual Cus^r 

Strict adherence should be required to a proper dual custody system 
in connection with the handling of personal effects, money, valuables, 
etc, 

6- Social Service Worker 

A qualified social service worker seem3 needed for proper investigation 
work in the Public Guardian s s office. 

7. Eospital Visits 

Provision, including time and transportation, shxnild be made for the 



HI 



Public Administrator or a member of his staff to make all neceaaary 
periodic visits to hospitals for the purpose of contacting persons 
involved in estate matters. 



Key employees should be afforded an opportunity to visit banks and trust 
companies to inspect accounting and procedure methods with a view toward 
improving the Department 5 a operation and their own personal knowledge of 
modern business practices. 



All adaptable accounting records, files, references, etc. should be 
placed on centralised tabulating equipment. 



The Tax Collector, with a staff of 65 persons, is chared with the 
responsibility of collecting and distributing to the proper accounts 
current and delinquent real and personal property taxes. 

The Tax Collector must conduct all sales of tax deeded property after 
due notice to owners and issue all deeds. Under Charter provision and 
ordinances, he collects business and regulatory license fees. He also 
directs the Parking Meter Collection Division and the Bureau of Delinquent 
Revenue. 

A modern functional rearrangement of this department ia needed, 

Reeonnendationa 

1* Annual Review 

Annual review of current tax methods, licenses, etc., employed by 
other cities and counties should be mde by a cesu&ittee consisi 
of the Director of Finance, Sax Collector, Controller, Mayor. 
Administrative Officer, together with a tax expert, for the purpc 
of updating schedules. 

2. 



Physical improvements should be effected as follows: 

(a) Remove island from lobby 

(b) Establish an information desk or section; and 

(c) Improve heating and ventilating. 



112 



: RECQ 



The cages should be modernised by reduci .igh screen and cc 
construction, and equipment such as Burroughs teller receipt machines, 
coin and currency guards, safes, etc. should be installed. These 
changes would assist in reducing the number of permanent tellers from 
four to three and possibly to two, with regular clerks U3ed as relief 
tellers if necessary. This would result in a savings estimated at 
$14., 200 a year, and afford better protection to tellers, whose work 
area is nov somewhat open to the public. 

Tellers' jobs are almost equal to those of the deputy clerks in the 
(Fines Department) and therefor they should be paid the same. 

(a) Delinquent Revenue Investigators should not be utilized internally at 
cages to accept tax payments (only one was left in the field during the 
peak period last year.) Provision should be made to use permanent clerks 
as relief tellers, and temporary clerks can be employed to substitute 
for regular clerks. Government would eollect additional revenue 
approximately $100,000 a year from delinquent accounts and this can be 
accomplished under pi-esent Civil Service regulations. 

(b) Delinquent Revenue Investigator^' districts should be reorganized and 
the Investigators should be allowed use of an automobile in appropri' 
districts. 

(c) Delinquent Revemie Investigators should not be required to in 
to the office at 3:30 p.m. daily. This would increase their time in 
the field about 19$ with a saving of §14, 260 a year. 

(d) An additional Senior Legal Process Clerk is needed in Delinquent Revenue 
Section to process $150 and under claims, xidditional revenue collect- 
ed would more than warrant expense and work would contiirue without in- 
terruption during vacation periods. 

(•) The Senior Inspector job should be re-established to provide proper 
supervision. 

(f) The need for additional legal help in Delinquent Account Section sh 
be evaluated. 

(g) Departments requiring the services of the Delinquent Revenue Division 
should promptly furnish complete information related to their 
(particularly the General Hospital). 

6. Return Postage 

Guaranteed postage on self-addressed return envelopes would encouir 

tax payments by mail, thereby reducing office traffic and feeder servri ; : 

7. Licepse Bureau 

Routine posting activities in the License Bureau involve several monual 
posting steps to serve as accounting cross-checks and to pro- 



Ities warrant a thomugh methods analysis of statistical breakdowns 
which do not appear necessary and consideration should bo given to their 
complete elimination. Any detail report needed should be the subject 
of a requested special study, not a continuing or repetitive report. 

8. Parking Meter Revenue 

Uae of pennies in parking meters shoiilo! be eliminated and a 5# minibus 
established. This would result in a substantial reduction in collection 
and counting work, and Eater clocks would require less frequent winding. 
(See Department of Electricity report). 



The Parking Meter Division should be provided with tracks having sore 
motor power, and trucks should be equipped with power-operated lifts 
for coin handling, '$?. additional truck is needed to handle the volume 
of work and to serve as a relief tru< 

Tax collection accounting should be converted to a meche: »r- 
at ion in the central tabulating unit. 

11. Parftjflff Wbt Co^ee^on, and Service 

Parking meter collection and service should be eembi- - 
(See report of Department of Electricity). 

12. library Renins 

The library rental system should be changed t o make the library 
responsible for collection of fines and penalties, thereby releasd 
work from Delinquent Account Group. 

13. Bicycle .Registration fee 

The bicycle registration fee should be a ene-tiss charge of $1. . 50 
per owner to eliminate annual rogistratit- lasted annual 
$6,240) 

U. Redemption Taxes 

Redemption taxes now collected by the Controller, 
by the Tax Collector inasmuch as the present system is in 
the property owner, This can be changed by tare: 
Board of Supervisors. 

15. Person^ Property .Taxes 

Subject to the concurrence of the Assessor, personal prot 

be assessed with real property where applicable; also personal pre 

taxes should be billed and collected with real properl 

Tax Collector. This will require the due date of payment for each tax 

to b 

(Tax Collector and Assessor) 



staff requirements. (Estimated annual saving -445,630) 

Findings 

The Registrar of 'Voters, vith a permanent staff of 24, registers voters, 
appoints election of:. conducts elections, and maintains off. 
records in compliance vith lavs and ordinances pertaining to elections 
and registrations. 

The Department was part of the combination Recorder-Registrar of Voters 
prior to the fall of I960 when it was cos&ined with the County Clerk. 

The operationsof the Department are subject to great peaks and valleys due 
to election schedules, and the basic staff of permanent employees is supple- 
mented during peak work load periods by many tempoz'ary employees. 

Efforts to maintain a stable work load for the permanent staff during 
periods between elections seem to have reesived priority over serious 
consideration of other means of accomplishing the >rk more quickly 
(and more efficiently) through mechanical weens. 

The Gity and County of San Francisco is stable in area (42 square miles) 
and the number of eligible voters will tend to remajji constant with hot 
to suburbs balanced by increased influx of older citizens. Th: :ion 
lends itself to establishing long-term and up-to-date procedures. 

Postage metering should be used for absentee ballots. 
2. 



Maximum utilization 3hould be made of volume stuffing and sealing 
ment for mailings. 

3. Instructions 



There should be more documentation of operating procedures withJ 
department, for example, developing more print' r use 

of various types of temporary employees and election of 



4. gurvey, 



A thorough survey should be made to further streamline las. 
tion officer changes and control. 



125 






S>. Repair Facilities 

The advisability of having instrument type repair service done by the 
parking me-oer repair shop in the Department of Electricity should 
examined. 

6. Geary Str eet Shop 

The lighting at the Geary Street Shop should be improved and the 
activities at that shop should be reviewed* looking toward trans?' 
of appropriate clerical duties to the permanent staff in City Hall. 

?« Assistant Registrar 

The Registrar of voters is no longer concerned with Recorder a< 

as a result the duties of the Assistant Registrar should be re-assigned 

and tho position eliminated, at a saving of approxiajately $11,1*60 a 

year., 

8r Hailin g ard F i" 

Mailing and filing (without addressograph personnel), now handleo 
$ General Clerks under general supervision of the Chief Clerk, 
be reorganized to a unit consisting of 1 Senior Clerk and 3 General 
Clerks reporting directly to the Registrar* Assuming this 
dation were placed in effect, then duties of the Chief Clerk shou 
be reallocated and the positions eliminated at a saving of app: 
iraately $l6 5 la0 a year* 

9* Assist ant Custodian of Voting Machines 

The position of Assistant Custodian of Voting Machines should 
eliminated when the incumbent succeeds to Hie Custodian pc 
because one supervisor is sufficient for the k Servicemen 
result in a saving of approximately $8*760 a year* 

Changes #7-9 above would result .in h or ? key sito-units repor 
directly to the Registrar of Voters: 

(a) Custodian, Voting Machines 

(b) Principal Clerks Election Officials 

(c) Senior Clerk, Voter Registration 

(d) Senior Clei% Mailing-File (nesr)j and 

(e) Senior Addressograph Operator (if system retains* 



116 






10, flechani zation 

A thorough survey should be made of every aspect of the department's 
operation looking toward conversion to machine records for information, 
mailing, operations and control purposes » For example, study should 
be made of punched cards vs. addressograph for mailings. 

Los Anpeles is experimenting with newer and more efficient 
handling the Registrar of Voter's functions because c... 
and complex growth problem, and a valuable pilot study of new and 
tested methods is readily available. 

11. Related Ac tivities 

The department should be grouped with other units doing related 
activiti^G or operating at different peak load periods. This 
allow more efficient utilization of personnel „ 

f. m&mswm 

Findings 

The Records Center was established in 1953. to provide orderly storage 
care and management of "storage records" for any departiaent or office of 
the City and County of San Francisco and for the San Francisco Unified 
School District. 

Its purpose is to provide low-cost housing for inactive records which 
mast be retained for va? iods or permanently, thereby sabs' 
reducing capital investment in filing cabinets, use of costly flo 
for files, and providing efficient, low-cost reference servi 

The records Gent offed by a Head Clerk, who serve.? 
tendent of Records, and two General Clerks. The 
responsible to the Director of Finance and Records, who reports 
Chief Administrative Officer. 

Paper records are stored in the 3rd, 4th and 5th floors at 150 0i 
Street where the capacity is 23,000 cubic feet (storage boxes 
records are stored in the underground vault beneath the "municipal 
Forest Hills Station. 

The present effectiveness and efficiency of <ne Otis Street facil 
is seriously handicapped and its future usefulness jeopardised bee 

(a) Laek of space prevents the Records Cente- its 
primary function of receiving inactive records for st 

(b) Current operating restrictions and requires 

st utilisation of the time and abilities o 
of Records and his staff. 






(e) Lack of established written policy guiding the retention and 

destruction of City and County records has virtually elia&aated 
any destruction of obsolete records by the Records Center. 

(d) Most City and County departments still retain storage facilities 
and continue to store inactive records. 

If the specific recoisHBsndatlons cannot be effected, or suitable e 
developed, then the records Center should be closed with a reduction of 
approximately three positions. 

SasswssiteS&sBB. 

1. 



The storage area is ncv full and proropt action is necessary to restore 
the effectiveness and potential of the Records Center. 

2. SitejmJfoavwft Spare 

The proposal, of the Director of Finance and Records to use space in 
the basement of the City Hall as a receiving and reference center for 
the most active records stored in the Center should be a/' The 
net gain in Records Center capacity will be 6,000 cubic feet and this 

pears to be the most practical iiaasdiate solution to the Cents:- 
critical space problem. 

3. 



The unassigned space at the Geary Street Car Barn is suitable fol- 
low coat maximum capacity Records Center, which will permit i - 
about 100,000 cubic feet of records in 12,000 square feet of space. 
It's use will penult releasing all space in the 150 Otis Builc" 
for offices, and provide a long-term solution for storing inactive 
reco: 

4. Delivey7__of Recor ds 

Present restrictions require the Superintendent of Records anc 
deputised General Clerk to deliver all records. A messenger 
should be developed to perfora this function. 

5. Destruction ..sL&qpJtit 

Destruction of records has not kept pace with the growth. It is e 
tial to develop retention and destruction schedules to enable the 
Records Genter to function effectively, 

6. Departmental Cooperation 

The Superintendent of records is qualified to develop a praeti 
and destruction schedule provided department beads will cooperate. 
becomes available, the need for dspsr \ntain and ope 

own age areas mu: 



CHIEF ADMINI STRATI ?E OFFICER 
DIRECTOR FINANCE AMD RECORDS 



7- Legislation 

The present status of legislation which will enable the County 
and municipality to establish normal retention and destruction 
schedules for duplicate records and non-essential paper should be 
determined by the Superintendent of Records. An effort should 
made through the State Legislature to effect destruction of old 
records which no longer have value. 

8. Estimated Cost Savings 

(a) Only one person is necessary to operate this center. 

Reduction of the junior positions x$ould effect an 
annual cost saving of approximately &L2,!i80. 

(b) The complete utilization of a records center and 

related movement of records from departments to 
the center, would result in an estimated annual 
saving of 0*23*000 in the maintenance of records. 



119 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 
DIRECTOR FINANCE AND RECOFcDS 



Go RECOMMENDATIONS INVOLVING CHARTER AND CODE CHANGES 



REGISTRAR OF VOTERS 

I The registration form should be simplified and converted to punched 
card size. 

II A charge should be made for checking sitnatures affixed to initiative 
petitions and precinct location of the signer. 

Ill A filing fee should be charged candidates for Ccunty Central 
Committees., 

IV A charge should be made for certificates of registration. 



TAX COLLECTOR 

I A general business license should be applied to all businssses, 
including professional services. This will result in an estimated 
additional gross revenue of at least two million dollars a year. 



120 



CHIEF ADMINISm/iTIVE OFFi 
IffSGELLA^IEOUS UttlTS 



V 

IgSCELIANEOUS UIK1S 

Page 

A, des.1 Estate Department 122 

D,. Sealer of Weights and Measures 123 

C. Agricultural Commissioner 12U 

D. Department of Electricity 125 

E. Coroner' s Department 127 
Fc Recommendations In-volving Charter Change 129 



121 



FFICER 

'JELLANEOUS UNITS 



A„ REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT 



The principal wcrk of the Real Estate Department, with a staff 
ox i;2, consists of land acquisition, sales and exchanges of city pro 
leasing property, sale of building and right -of -way clearance, appraisal 
of all types of property for various purposes and reports, and manage- 
ment of city-owned properties, Civic Auditorium and Brooks Hall. The 
Department is capable cf handling additional work of a similar nature now 
done by other City department s. 

RECCigffiNDATIONS 

lo Documents (deeds, lease agreements, fire insurance policies 

and papers pertinent to pending projects) should be given 
vault protection at night . 

2o New equipment should be purchased to improve efficiency*. 

(Polaroid cameras, copy machines, dictating machines, 
addressograph plates, etc-) 

3o A study should be conducted looking toward converting 

record-keeping and statistical information to existing 
tabulating equipment. 



122 



ins 



Bo SEALLR OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

Findings 

The Department of Weights and Measures with a staff of nine is 
concerned with maintaining uniformity in business transactions where 
quantity determinations are involved,, The inspection service is re- 
quired by 'the State of California and the Department operates under 
State eode and regulations in addition to the general supervision by 
the State. 

Under present organisation, complete coverage by the Department 
is not possible without increase in 3taff and further large capital 
expenditures for additional equipment. A more efficient and econom- 
ical service could be achieved through State operation and a com- 
parison can be drawn with the highway traffic law enforcement formerly 
handled by each County and now uniformly handled by the California 
State Highway Patrol. 



fteeoznmend ations 
1. Lej 



A study should be undertaken as to the desirability of the trans- 
fer of the Sealer's activities to the State of California <* 

2» District Assignments 

Inspectors should be swi tchad from one district to another at 
irregular intervals . 

3. feporting 

Inspectors should not be required to report in to their office 
in the evening nor every morning. 

h» Vehicles 

Special or custom typo vehicles designed to handle Inspectors' 
equipment should be purchased when present vehicles are replaced. 



The tickler system pertinent to making inspections as well as 

other records and statistical information should be studied 

a view to transferring them to an existing centralized tabulating 

operation. 



123 



Findings 

The Agricultural Comsrdasioner wit- 
the enforeemei 

Agricultural Comraissi< 

is managed by a Markel fae assignrnsn ' 

ing apace to fanners, collection of daily fees and eni: 
rules and regulations ) market., 

Ihe not be responsible for this 

agricultural inspection activiiy which is clearly an over~all St 
responsibility comparable to other State operated functions,, 

Ihs Farmers 5 Market is a local service which is sa >ry 

and should be operated as a separate entiv 



Recon^ndations 

CGI- 

lo Transfer of A ct ivit ies 

A atud;; iidertaken looking towj 

Agricultural ConmisHLoner's activities to the State of Calif c 
for handling on a basis c '.nty Jurisdiction. £ 

action would be needed,. 

2 Inspection Fees 

Inspection fees should 1 bhe feasibility 

of a general increase to more adequately cover cost of regulation 
and inspection o 

3* I nspectors 

Every inspector should not be required tc 

each morning c Appearances can he rotated which would 

the tins devoted to field wo: -«• 

U- Tabulating 

The use of existing goverraasnt tabulating equipjaent shoulc 
explored with a view toward extending its application to the 
Agricultural Department's records., reports and statistical ds. 






5. Budget 

In many Instances budget requeaus are not granted, with the result 
that the Department in unable to fulfill obligations — for example — 
interstate plant quarantine work requiring additional staff, 

6c Transportation 

The City should uit&ble automobiles to inspectors who now 

furnish their own transportation. 

FAJML5S ' lilRKST DIVISION 

1. The Farmers' Market should be tha subject of a. comprehensive spec- 
analysis, It now operates substantially as a space rental busine< 
furnishing certain space and coeee>» services to tens; 
this concept., it is recommended that jurisdiction be Transferred to 
the Ifeal Estate Department, Moreover, the transition 
Market, from its original purpose of the war years as a form of i 
lief outlet for the individual local farmers' produce which is now 
out-no ded, to that of performing a common commercial function she 
scrutinized and evaluated as to the basic need for continuance 
th6 fac or recommended that the Real 

p,?rtjasnt be assigned the responsibility of making such an evaluation 
study and to include economic feasibility alternate proposals 
use of the property for other City uses,., 

D ° DEPARTMENT OF ELtfiTRICIff 

Findings 

The Department of Electricity is responsible for the c« 
installation, maintenance and repair of: 

(a) Equipment and apparatus in connection with the centv. 
fire alarm station, circuits to fire alarm equipment 
in fire houses and fire alarm boxes 5 and the fire 
patching operation „ 

(b) Police Department emergency telephone and teletype 
systems. 

(c) Radio communications. 

(d) Traffic signals, 

(e) Parking meters, 

(f ) Civil Defense warning system. 



125 



JITS 



Many of the 107 employees are subject to call twenty-four hours 
a day because of the emergency nature of the work* 

In view of the rapid developments taking place in the field of 
electronics end communications, and because the title of the Depart- 

is misleading, a near title. Er of Communications, would 

more correctly re*. Department's function. Shis title change 

would 5_nvolve technical revision of the Charter. , 

^comm endations 

1. Quarters 

Inroedlate steps should be taken toward development of the proposed 
permanent new quarters of the Department of Electricity, In the 
meantime 3 temporal facilities, with proper heating, should be 
established to provide a more efficient operation and greater 
safety. 

(For example, arrangements could possibly be made with 
the State of California to lease, at a reasonable t 
ure, space under the fre<sr«ay adjacent to Franklin and 
Gough Streets.. A Butler type steel building could house 
the departments located at 26U Golden Gate Avenue and in 
addition adequate space would be available for storage 
of supplies and materials, etc., and parking of auto- 
motive equipment. The cost of these interim facilities 
would be paz'tially offset by rental obtained from leasing 
present quartern to private concerns) . 

2. Traffic Signals 

Traffic signal maintenance and repair costs should be reduced by 
installing overhead or curb type of signal trippers (electric eye), 



Some of the lengthy and unnecessarily detailed monthly reports 
shovld be eliminated . 

b« Telepho ne, gystem 

The Department should plan and control the installation end 
modification of all telephone systems within the city govern- 
ment. Services provided by Pacific Telephone & Telegraph 
Company should be analyzed » and a study, supported by a 
special appropriation, should be undertaken of tiie feasibility 
of consolidating switchboards and converting to direct inward 
dialing. 



126 



CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE 01 
MISCELLANEOUS UNITS 



An enlarged police detail should be established, on a cont nuing 
basis, to concentrate on false fire alarms and vandalism in con- 
nection with fire and police boxes as well as parking meters. Here 
vigilance and punishment would result in less repair work and c 
sequent reduction in the Department's costs* 

6. Radio Communications 

In view of the new Fire Department radio installation, it would 
appear feasible to centralize all fire dispatching work with the 
Department of Electricity, thereby effecting possible reduction of 
3 or k persons in the combined Fire Department/Department of 
Electricity dispatcher personnel, (Estimated annual savings — 
I38,61i0.) 

?» Parki ng Meter Revenue 

Additional revenue from parking meters could be obtained by eliaan- 
ating use of pennies, establishing a f>£ minimum for a period 
commensurate with the location of the meter* In addition, the City 
should consider making a minor mechanical adjustment so that quarters 
(25h£) may be used in meters located in very choice downtown areaso 
The first recommendation would b ing about additional revenue approx~ 
iraating III?, 000 a year*. 



Parking meter servicing and collection should be consolidated so as 
to result in a staff reduction of 3 to U employees as between this 
Department and tine Tax Collector's office* (Estimated annual 
savings — $28,150.) 



CORONER'S DEPAR TMENT 

Findings 

The Coroner 2 s Department, with a staff of 30 is responsible for the 
investigation and medical evaluation of all deaths in San Francisco, 
the causes of which are unknown and/er are not clearly evident* Great 
emphasis is placed on cases where the actual cause of death is not 
absolutely c3e ar (including those cases where no physician has been 
in attendance within five days). 



127 



5CELUNE01) 



Because of the unique nature of its responsibilities, emphasis is 
needed (and is being obtained) in developing and retaining a highly 
motivated team of specialized personnel rather than viewing the 
organization as a stepping stone to greater responsibility within 
the city organization, Ibis Department, by the investigative nature 
of its work., should be kept independent., 

Recommendations 

1. Filli i 

Because of the nature of the work involved and the attendant d 
ficulties in securing qualified personnel, more latitude than 
currently provided by the "rule of one" is desirable.. The choice 
from the "top five" candidates approach would be very help 
especially in filling positions in the investigation group (Coroner 
Investigator and Morgue Ambulance Driver). This statement also 
applies to the selection of administrative and office personnelo 

2« Posit ion Diffe ren t ials 

Proper salary differentials between positions havirg vastly greater 
responsibilities, i.e., Coroner Investigator vs. Morgue Ambulance 
Driver, and Chief Coroner Investigator vs» Coroner Investigator, 
should be studied. 

3« Supplies 

Because deaths and autopsy needs are not precisely predictable, mc 
latitude should be given in the procurement of necessary suppl 
with flexibility by item within the total amount budgeted for 
and supplies-. 

ko Mac hine Records 

Provision should, be made to transfer department information be 
records in order to facilitate summarizing and use of valuable 
statistic So 

5. Clothing Allowance 

Because of the nature of the work of the Ccroner Investigator, serious 
consideration should be given to providing seme form of cleaning 
allowance for clothing* 






OFFICER 

::rs 



REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT 
REC OMMENDATIONS IHVOL'ffTOG CHARTER CHANGE 



I - The negotiation, execution and domiciling of all leases wj 
the Government should be handled by the Real Estate Depart- 
ment » 

II ~ The management; of the Opera House and the War Memorial should 
be assigned to the Manager of Civic Auditorium. 



129 






IJIZATIOH OF THE OFFICE OF 
CHIEF AEMDHSTRATIVE OFFICER 



£ggg 



A Duties and Besponsih5.jJ.ties X31 

Bo Organizational History 132 

Cc Proposed Reorganisation 332 

Jentral Services 133 



130 






ORGANIZA' 
OF THE OFFICE OF 
CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 



Duties and Responsibilities 

The present Charter provides that the Mayor shall appoint as Chief 
Administrative Officer a qualified person with administrative ■ 
executive ability and experience,, Ke must haws five years residence 
in California,, His tenure is until retirement age s subject to poss- 
ible removal from office for official misconduct by a two-thirds vote 
of the Board of Supervisors « H" is responsible to the Mayor and the 
Board of Supervisors, 

Under the Charter he has administrative charge, supervision and con* 
trol over the departments of F3jnsnce and Records (Tax Collector., 
County Clerk-Recorder, Registrar of Voters, Public Administrate 
Records Center), Purchasing, Real Estate, Electricity, Coroner, 
Agriculture, Weights and Measures, Public Works., and Public Health. 
The beads of Finance and Records, Purchasing, Public Works, and 
Public Health are appointive by the C„ A. C. an6 their tenure is 
at his pleesure 5 while the other five are selected by Civil Service 
subject to a six-months probationary period* 

Also under the Charter 5 the C„ A. 0» appoints a Health Advisory Board, 
has a voice but no vote in the Board of Supervisors, coordinates tr? 
control matters among the various departments, provides for the bud' 
ing and control of publicity and advertising expenditures, serves c. 
member of the Scavenger Rate Board, serves himself or designates a deputy 
as member ex- officio (with a vote) on the City Planning Ccrcmiasion, is 
appointing officer for the California Academy of Sciences » 

By authority of ordinance or otherwise, the C D A. 0* also appoin 
Housing Appeals Board, serves en the city's Legislative Committee, 
heads -the Regional Service Committee, is secretary of the Hunters 
Point Reclamation District, controls the Fish and Game Conserve. 
Fund., attends various State Highway meetings, serves as County Road 
Commissioner „ 

Also 3 the Co A. 0o is the Chairman of -the Budget Priority Committee 
and Central Safety Committee „ 



131 



Organizational History 



Of the 21 j OOO employees of the City and Couniy of San Francisco 6$% are 
under the jurisdiction of the Mayor,, In order to relieve the Mayor of 
some of his administrative duties, 3&% of his employees have been fur- 
ther assigned to the jurisdiction of the Chief Administrative Of icer, 
This produces the following distribution of employee reporting respons- 
ibilities in San Francisco: 

k0% to the Mayor 

2$% to to© Chief Administrative Officer 
2$% to the Board of Education 
10% to the Elected Officials 
100T~ 



The $ j 000 employees assigned to -iho Chief Administrative Officer have 
been organized into 36 operating units ranging in size from 1,500 em~ 
ployees in the San Franciseo General Hospital to 9 employees in 
office of the Sealer of Weights & Measures* 22 of these operating 
units (61$ of the units and 90$ of the employees) report through feio 
supervisors to the Chief Administrative Officer: 

Director of Public Health 12 Units with 60# of the 



Director of Public Work* 



10 Units with 30% of 
employees 



For soma time, the remaining iij units (39% of the units 5 but only 10$ 
of the employees) reported directly to the Chief Administrative Off: 
a total of 16 subordinate supervisors « 

With the appointment of a Director of Finance & Bscords 9 ? of these lU 
units were required to report to the Chief Administrative Officer through 
this supervisor* The ether 7 operating units (19$ of the uaits s and 7% 
of the employees) plus the above aire© supervisors -- a total of 10 sub- 
ordinate supervisors — * report to the Chief Administrative Officer: 




DQQDDDD 



Employees 
Units 
% 



12 
133?) 



30£ 

10 

(292) 



(19%) 



1% 


10C$ 






2$%) 





Proposed Reorgan i sation 

The proposed reorganization of the Office of the Chief Adndnistrati 
Officer., which is possible within the limits of the current City Chi 
is designed to accomplish the following objectives: 

(1) Establish a Deputy Chief Administrative Officer to give 
major assistance to the C 3 A. 0. and to act for him in 

his absence 3 



132 






(2) Reduce to 5 (including the Deputy C„ A. e ), the number 
of supervisors reporting directly J, A, 0. 

(3) Provide nearly equal levels of responsibility and authority 
for those supervisors reporting to the C„ A, 0, and the 
Deputy C A. 0„ 

{h) Provide for a more logical grouping of units performing 
similar or related functions under the C A. 0. --and the 
lty C„ A, 0o 



(5>) Prcvida for formal recognition of the many central eervices, 
un'Jer the Co A» 0, 5 that should eventually be designated to 
operate on a city-vide basis „ 

This reorganization can be porf ormad with only a slight initial addition 
to staff «- the manning of the Standards & Procedures function. Once 
this funr-tion becomes fully operative, it should produce results that 
will mor* than offset the total cost of this kind of analytical service. 

Central Services 

Observations which we have made that appear to affect government on 

city- pride basis (and therefore do not solely affect units we have studied) 

are as follows: 

(1) All duplicating, printing and office supplies (Including 
stationery ? calling cards^ annual reports and other reports) 
are not controlled and/or produced or purchased by a central 
unit to effect economies and standardisation, (Bsproducv: 
service function). 

(2) A city-wide central mail department does not exist Creation 
of this department world reduce postage expense, investment 
in equipment , office space and personnel. This would also 
increase efficiency and provide for itassenger service, 

(Mail and messenger service function). 

(3) A central stenographic pool does not exist to serve applicable 
organizational units This would effect economies through re- 
duction of employees on several units' payrolls., (Clerical- 
steno service function), 

(h) Telephone switchboards are not completely consolidates 
serviced by a central unit, (Central telephone operations 
function) „ 

(5) All applicable accounting and statistical information is 
not handled and compiled by a central data processing uni 
(Data processing service function). 



133 



CHIEF AIMNISTfl/vTI vF OFF/ 



(6) All office and other spaco allocation is not controlled 
currently by any one unit* (Office and space control 
function) . 

(7) Organization structure, management standards, methods, 
procedures, systems, services, operations, manpower 
utilisation, and other expense and fees of each organiza- 
tional unit are not checked by any group on a continuing 
and recurring basis. (Standards and procedures function) 

Full utilization of all of the functions grouped under Central Services and 
the Standards and Procedures Function could well mean annuel savings to the 
City and County of San Francisco of several millions of dollars „ These 
extensive potential savings have not been included in previously mentioned 
estimates, 






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